Textbook notes-Chapter 5 Membrane_Dynamics

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Biological Sciences
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Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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Chapter 5 Membrane Dynamics BGYB30 Because of the free movement of water, the extracellular and intracellular compartments can reach a state of osmotic equilibrium, in which the total amount of solute per volume of fluid is equal on the two sides of the cell membrane. At the same time, however, the body is in a state of chemical disequilibrium, in which the major solutes are more concentrated in one of the two body compartments than in the other. Example: + - - -> Na , Cl and HCO a3e more concentrated in extracelullar fluid than in intracellular fluid. -> Whereas, K are more concentrated inside the cell. 2+ 2+ -> Ca is more concentrated in the extracelullar fluid than in the cytosol, although many cells store Ca inside organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. - The inside of the cell is slightly negative relative to the extracelullar fluid. - Homeostasis is not the same as equilibrium. The intracellular and extracelullar compartments of the body may be in osmotic equilibrium, but they are also in chemical and electrical disequilibrium. * @Z]L oooo] L]Z]L2]ZZ}KZ oooo]Z [ZZ]2Z }L L]}L + + - of K ion and low concentration of Na , and Cl ions. Diffusion: - Cell membranes are selectively permeable; the lipid and protei
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