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Chemistry (251)
CHMA10H3 (108)
Ann Verner (24)
Chapter 7

book notes for chapter 7

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ann Verner

Chapter 7: The Quantum-Mechanical Model of an Atom Quantum Mechanics: The Theory That Explains the Behavior of the Absolutely Small Quantum-Mechanical Model: a model that explains how electrons exist in atoms and how those electrons determine the chemical and physical properties of elements. The Nature of Light Electromagnetic Radiation: a type of energy embodied in oscillating electric and magnetic fields. o Electric Field: a region of space where an electrically charged particle experiences a force (proton or electron). o Magnetic Field: a region of space where a magnetic particle experiences a force (magnet). Light travels faster than sound thats why we seelightning before we hear thunder. Amplitude: the vertical height of a crest or depth of a trough. o The greater the amplitude, the greater the intensity or brightness of the light. Wavelength (): the distance between adjacent crests or any two analogous points. o The amplitude and wavelength can vary independently of one another. Frequency (v): the number of cycles or wave crests that pass through a stationary point in a given period of time (in Hertz or s ). o The frequency of a wave is directly proportional to the speed at which the wave is travelling. o Frequency is inversely proportional to the wavelength. o v = c For visible light, light that can be seen by the human eye, wavelength or frequency determines color. o Red has the longest wavelength of visible light and violet has the shortest wavelength. o When a substance absorbs some colors while reflecting others, it appears colored. o A red shirt appears red because it reflects red light while absorbing most of the other colors. Electromagnetic Spectrum: all wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. o A short wavelength has greater energy than a long wavelength. o Low to high energy or longer to shorter wavelength: radio, microwave, infrared, visible light (red to violet), ultraviolet, x-ray and then gamma rays. Interference: waves interact with each other that cancel each other out or build each other up, depending on their alignment upon interaction. o Constructive Interference: if two waves of equal amplitude are in phase when they interact, they align with overlapping crests, a wave twice the amplitude (bright line). o Destructive Interference: if two waves of equal amplitude are completely out of phase when they interact, they align so that the crest from one source overlaps with the trough from the other source (dark line). www.notesolution.com
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