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ch8. Periodic Properties of the Elements.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Shadi Dalili

8 Periodic Properties of the ElementsoConcepts of quantum mechanics explain the arrangement of elements in the periodic table by reference to the electrons within the atoms that compose the electrons81 Nerve Signal TransmissionoMovement of ions is the basis for the transmission of nerve signals in the brain and throughout the body Sodium ions are pumped out of cells while potassium ions are pumped into cellsoResult in a chemical gradient for each ion concentration differences for each ion inside and outside of the celloIon channels open to allow sodium and potassium ions flow back down their gradients sodium into cell and potassium out of celloIon channels can distinguish difference in size between the two ions and selectively allow only one or the other to passoHigher atomic number does not always result in a larger ionoPeriodic property an elements property can be predicted by its position with the periodic table82 The Development of the Periodic TableoPeriodic table arranged such that in order of increasing mass certain properties recur periodically mass increased from left to right elements with similar properties fell in the same column ordered from increasing atomic number rather than atomic mass 83 Electron Configurations How Electrons Occupy OrbitalsoElectron configuration for an atom shows the particular orbitals that are occupied for that atom1oground statelowest energy state ex H1s superscript 1number of electrons in orbital indicates that hydrogens one electron is in the 1s orbitaloelectrons generally occupy the lowest energy orbitals availableoarrangements of the electrons within their atoms correlate with the elements chemical propertiesosolutions of the Schrodinger equation indicate that the orbitals in multielectron atoms are hydrogenlikethey are similar to s p d f orbitalsotwo additional concepts must be examined in order to see how the electrons in multielectron atoms occupy these hydrogenlike orbitals electron spin and sublevel energy splittingElectron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principleoelectron spinaffects the number of electrons allowed in one orbital
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