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Chemistry (256)
CHMA10H3 (108)

ch 24

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Shadi Dalili

24 Transition Metals and Coordinating CompoundsoMany biological molecules contain transition elements in arrangements similar to their arrangements of coordination compounds ex oxygencarrying site on hemoglobin is an iron ion bonded partly to an amino acid in the hemoglobin molecule and partly to a flat molecule called a porphyrin an O molecule reversibly bonds to the iron and is transported throughout the body by blood241 The Colors of Rubies and EmeraldsoCrystal fieldfield created by atoms in crystal around an ion that splits the five normally degenerate d orbitals into two or more levels affects color of crystal caused by electron transitions between those levelsoIn rubies crystal filed is stronger corresponding splitting of d orbitals is greater resulting in greater energy difference between the d orbitals of 3Cr than emeralds rubies are deep red emeralds are brilliant greenoColor of a substance depends on the colors absorbed by that substance which in turn depends on the energy differences between the orbitals involved in the absorptionoColors of some other gemstones are also caused by splitting of d orbitals in transition metal ions imbedded within host crystalsoCrystal field theory explains splittings and corresponding colors of gemstones242 Properties of Transition MetalsoAlmost all transition metals have moderate to high densities good electrical conductivity high melting points and moderate to extreme hardness properties similar to main group elements because of similar electron configurations have electrons in d orbitals that can be involved in metallic bondingoOther properties are different from main group elementsElectron ConfigurationsxoMany exceptions occur because ns and n 1d are close in energy ex 2xouter configuration for first transition series of the d block is 4s3d with 15110two exceptions Cr is 4s3d and Cu is 4s3d caused by the closely spaces 3d and 4s energy levels and the stability associated with a halffilled or a completely filled d subleveloForm ions by losing electrons from the s orbital before losing electrons from the d orbitals 14 oIf element is in third or fourth transition series include n2felectrons in the configurationAtomic SizeoLittle variation in size across a tow other than for the first two elements in each transition metal row ex Sc and Ti in the first row because the number of electrons in the outermost principal energy levelhighest n valueis nearly constantoAs another proton is added to the nucleus with each successive element another electron is added as well but the electron goes into an n1 orbitalthe number of outermost electrons stays the same and electrons experience a roughly constant effective nuclear chargeoSmall increase in size down a row from first to second row but second row about the same as third because 14 of the 32 electrons are in a n1
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