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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 The Quantum- Mechanical of the Atom

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Shadi Dalili

Chapter 7 The Quantum- Mechanical of the Atom 7.1 Quantum Mechanics: The Theory That Explains the Behaviour Quantum-Mechanical Model: A model explaining how electron in atoms and how those electrons determine the chemical and physical properties in elements - Classical Physics: At the beginning of the 20 century, matter was described as discrete particles, electromagnetic radiation were continuous waves, the two were thought to be separate entities 7.2 The Nature of Light - Light is electromagnetic radiation (a type of energy embodied by oscillating electric and magnetic fields) - Electric and magnetic fields spread as waves through empty space or through a medium, a wve transmits energy, produced by accelerating electrically charged particles visible light (electrons) and radio wave (fluctuations of electric current) - WavelengthLambda (): Distance between tops of 2 successive creststroughs, unit in meters (m), = cv, 1 nanometer = 10^-9 m - Amplitude: The maximum height of the wave - Frequency (v): Number of creststroughs passing through a given pointunit of time (s-1), unit: cyclesecond - Velocity (c= speed of light) = 2.9975 x 10^8 m.s-1 -Most humans see between 450 nm (violet) to 700 nm (red) - Colour of light is determined by wavelengthfrequency spectrum (ROYGBV) when object absorbs some of the white light and reflects other when coloured (THE OBSEVED COLOUR IS THE COLOUR REFLECTED) white light passing through a prism gives a continuous spectrum a line spectrum is obtained by applying spark to H , c2using energy to be released as light (indicates that certain energies are allowed for electron in H=-atom ENERGY IS QUANTIZED) - Plancks Postulation: Energy can only be transferred in discrete quantities Delta E = hv ; v = frequency, h is Plancks constant, 6.626 x 10^-34 Js Energy is not continuous and is quantized (forced to only have certain discrete values - Interference: Interaction between waves, 2 types www.notesolution.com
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