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CHMA11H3 (64)

Ch 12 textbook notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Jamie Donaldson

CHAPTER 12 SOLUTIONS 121 Thirsty Solutions Why you should not drink SeawaterSeawater draws water out of body as it passes through stomachintestine leading to diarrheadehydrationSea waterthirsty solutiondraws more water to itselfSolution homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances components o Solvent majority component o Solute minority componentChemicals tend to spontaneously mix unless it is not favoured energeticallysubstances tend to combine into uniform mixturesuniform concentrationsWhen seawater flows through intestine it passes cells with intracellular fluids containing ionsthese fluids are more dilute than seawaterso water leaves cells due to this liking for uniform concentration and selective permeability of membranesoln in intestine become more dilute causing diarrheadecreased fluid in cell causes dehydration122 Types of Solutions and SolubilityAqueous solutions water is solventsolute can be of any gas stateSolubility amount of the substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent o Depends on intermolecular forcesnatures tendency toward mixing entropy Natures Tendency toward Mixing EntropyFormation of a solution does not necessarily lower the potential energy of its constituent particleso Neonargon 2 ideal gases mix even though their PE remains unchangedthis is due to entropyEntropy measure of energy randomization or energy dispersal in a system o When neonargon are in their individual compartments their kinetic energy dispersed in that compartment onlybut when they mix their energy becomes spread over dispersed over a larger volumegreater entropy oie flow of thermal energy from hot end to cold end their energy gets dispersed over a larger number of particles The Effect of Intermolecular ForcesIn the absence of intermolecular forces 2 substances spontaneously mix to form homogenous mixtureIntermolecular forces btwn solventsolute solventsolvent and solutesolute forces prevent or promote formation of solution o SOLVENTSOLUTESOLVENTSOLVENTSOLUTESOLUTESOLUTION FORMS o SOLVENTSOLUTESOLVENTSOLVENTSOLUTESOLUTESOLUTION FORMS o Solventsolutesolventsolventsolutesolutesolution may or may not form depending on relative disparity btwn interactionsif small disparity soln still forms even if process requires energyLike dissolves like123 Energetics of Solution Formationin forming a solution three things occur o separating solute particles endothermic bc overcoming intermolecular forces H o separating solvent particlesendothermicH o mixing solute particles with solventexothermic
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