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CHMA11H3 (69)
Chapter 15-18

CHMA11 (Chem 2) Textbook Notes for Chapters 15-18

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Effiette Sauer

Chma11 Textbook Notes 152 Properties of Acids ability to dissolve many metalssour taste turn litmus red titrate to clear Properties of Bases bitter taste feel slippery turn litmus blue titrate to pink alkali alkaloidsbases Organic bases specifically 153 Arrhenius Definition Acidsubstance that produces H ions in aq Basesubstance that produces OH ions in aq H ions associate with H2O to form H3O hydronium ions BronstedLowry Definition Acidproton H donor Baseproton H acceptor under this defn proton donors and proton acceptors always occur together amphoterica substance that can act as acids or bases Ex Water in the reverse eqn the base that has now accepted a proton can act as an acid And the acid that has donated a proton can now act as a base these pairs that are exactly one proton off are conjugate acidbase pairs154 The stronger the acid the weaker the conjugate base the strength of an electrolyte is determined by how much it dissociatesionizes complete ionization indicates the equilibrium lying far to the right indicated by a single arrow rather than the reverse forward double llbm arrows and a strong electrolyte 6 important strong acids HCl H2SO4 HNO3 HBr HI HClO4 monoprotic acidonly one ionisable proton Ex HCl diprotic acidtwo ionisable protons Ex H2SO4 since it depends on llbm we quantify strength with K acid ionization a constantllbm constant H3OH155 autoionization the process of pure water acting as an acid and a base with itselfWe quantify the autonization of water with the llbm constant Kthe ion product constant for water w the dissociation constant for water 14 In pure waterneutralH3O and OH are equalK 10 x 10 true at standard conditions 25C w7The individual concentrations of H3O and OH will be 10 x 10 Even in acidic or basic solutions ion product constant still applies just the relative concns will differSig figs KpKa acid strength H3O pH towards 7pOH towards 7 a
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