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CHMB16H3 (16)

Lecture 1 Textbook notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Kagan Kerman

CHMB16 Notes Chapter 0. Sections 0-2 and 0-3 0-2 The Analytical Chemist’s Job • Sampling o First step in chemical analysis o To measure o Various samples of each type should be taken for a broader range o Homogenous – same composition everywhere  a sample is pure if it remains in 1 phase/homogenous o Heterogenous –composition differs; multiple phases of compound • Sample Preparation o Transforming a sample into a state that is suitable for analysis o Need to eliminate the interferences o Physical and chemical changes used to extract pure sample (ie. decant) o Analytes –substances being measured; the “target” molecule o Quantitative transfer is used to dissolve analytes for chemical analysis o Replicate samples are made to extract the heterogenous sample to make it more pure • The Chemical Analysis o Standard Solution is determined for each of the analytes to measure the concentration (calibration) o Use of methods for detector results (ie. chromatography) o Qualitative analysis –identifies what the unknown/s is/are in a sample o Quantitative analysis –determines the amount of specific compound present in a sample • Calibration Curves o Analytes vary in detector responses o Calibration curves are used to determine which response was produced by a certain analyte o Concentrations must be known for each analyte using a standard solution of pure substances o Straight lines drawn through the calibr
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