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CHMB20H3 (5)
Chapter 1

CHMB20 Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Jamie Donaldson

Chapter 1 The Properties of GasesThe Perfect GasGas a form of matter that fills any container it occupiesoIt is in continuous random motionoAverage speeds increase as the temperature is raisedoExcept during collisions the molecules of a gas are widely separated from one another and move in paths that are largely unaffected by intermolecular forcesEquation of State p fT V nEquation of State of a Perfect Gas p nRTVoPressure p FA to which theforce is appliedF mg m rV where r is mass densityThe greater force acting on a given area the greater the pressureIf two gases are in separate containers that share a common movable wall the gas that has the higher pressure will tend to compress the gas that has lower pressureMechanical Equilibrium when the two pressures are equal and the wall has no tendency to move high pressure lowers and low pressure increasesBarometer measures the pressure exerted by the atmosphereHydrostatic Pressure p rgh where g is gravity and h is the heightBayardAlpert Pressure Gauge interpretation of pressure is based on the ionization of molecules present in the gas and the resulting current of ionsCapacitance Manometer the deflection of a diaphragm relative to a fixed electrode is monitored through its effect on the capacitance of arrangementoTemperature T the property that indicates the direction of the flow of energy through a thermally conducting rigid wallWhen energy flows from A to B when they are in contact then we say that A has a higher temperature than B high temp will flow towards low tempDiathermic Boundary if a change of state is observed when two objects at different temperatures are brought into contact metal containerAdiabatic Boundary if no change occurs even though the two objects have different temperatures vacuum flaskThermal Equilibrium established if no change of state occurs when two objects A to B are in contact through a diathermic boundaryZeroth Law of Thermodynamics if A is in thermal equilibrium with B and B is in thermal equilibrium with C then C is also in equilibrium with APerfectGas Temperature Scale Thermodynamic Temperature Scale using the pressure of a gas and is independent of the identity of the gasTK qC27315 where q is the temperature of the Celsius scale implies that a difference in temperature of 1C is equivalent to a difference of 1K25C29815K
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