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Canada (161,680)
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CHMB20H3 (5)
Chapter 2

CHMB20 Chapter 2

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Jamie Donaldson

Chapter 2 The First LawThe Basic ConceptsThermodynamics the study of the transformations of energySystem the part of the world in which we have a special interestSurroundings the region outside the system and are where we make our measurementsoOpen if matter can be transferred through the boundary between the system and its surroundingsoClosed if matter cannot pass through the boundaryoBoth open and closed systems can exchange energy with their surroundingsoIsolated System a closed system that has neither mechanical nor thermal contact with its surroundingsWork done to achieve motion against an opposing force the transfer of energy that makes use of organized motionEnergy capacity to do work when the capacity to do work is increased energy is increased but when a system does work the energy of the system is reduced and can do less workHeat the transfer of energy that makes use of disorderly molecular motionoDiathermic boundaries that permit the transfer of energy as heatoAdiabatic boundaries that dont permit the transfer of energy as heatoExothermic Process a process that releases energy as heat into its surroundingsoEndothermic Process a process in which energy is acquired from its surroundings as heat vaporization of waterEndothermic and diathermic container results in energy flowing into the system as heat to restore the temperature to that of the surroundingsExothermic and diathermic container results in a release of energy as heat into the surroundingsEndothermic and adiabatic container results in a lowering of temperature of the systemExothermic and adiabatic results in a rise of temperature of the systemThermal Motion disorderly motion of molecules in the surroundings movement of heatInternal Energy U the total energy kinetic and potential of a system a state functionoDUUfUioState Function its value depends only on the current state of the system and is independent of how that state has been preparedoMolar Internal Energy Um the internal energy divided by the amount of substance in a system UmUnEquipartition Theorem used to estimate the contribution to the internal energy of classical modes of motion the average energy of each quadratic contribution to the energy is kToFor monatomic gas translation only UmTUm032RT where Um is the molar internal energy at T0oInternal energy of a perfect gas increases linearly with temperatureoFor a linear molecule translation and rotation only UmTUm052RToFor a nonlinear molecule translation and rotation only UmT
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