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CHMB31H3 (8)
Chapter 1

CHMB31 Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Alen Hadzovic

Chapter 1 Atomic StructureThe Origin of ElementsStrong Force a shortrange but powerful attractive force between protons and neutrons bound these particles together into nucleiElectromagnetic Force a relatively weak but longrange force between electric charges bound electrons to nuclei to form atomAtomic Number Z the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of the elementIsotopes atoms with the same atomic number but different atomic massesMass Number A the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleusNuclear reactions are very much more energetic than normal chemical reactions because the strong force is much stronger than the electromagnetic force that binds electrons to nucleiANuclide a nucleus of specific atomic number Z and mass number A is designated EZ0Particle denoted as e10Positron denoted as e it is a positively charged electron with a zero mass number1Elements up to Z26 were formed inside stars the products of nuclear fusion reactionsBinding Energy represents the difference in energy between the nucleus itself and 2the same numbers of individual protons and neutrons Edeltam x cbindoA positive binding energy corresponds to a nucleus that has a lower more favorable energy than its constituent nucleonsoEvenZ nuclides are slightly more stable than their oddZ neighborsoA large binding energy signifies a stable nucleusNuclei close to iron Fe are the most stable and heavier elements are produced by a variety of processes that require energy98199oNeutron Capture MonMo420429899oFollwed bydecay accompanied by neutrino emission MoTce4243vDaughter Nuclide the product of a nuclear reactionThe Structures of Hydrogenic AtomsHydrogenic Atoms or HydrogenLike Atoms have only one electron and are free of 5the complicating effects of electronelectron repulsions He and CManyElectron Atoms atoms with more than one electron2 2All wavelengths can be described by the expression 1R1n 1n where R is 1271the Rydberg constant with a value of 1097 x 10 mWaveParticle Duality electrons can behave as particles or as wavesUncertainty Principle it is impossible to know the linear momentum and the location of an electron simultaneously so the product of the uncertainty in momentum and the uncertainty in position cannot be less than a quantity of the order of Planks constantwhere h2Wavefunctionor psi a mathematical function of the position coordinates x y and z which describes the behavior of an electron
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