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CHMB31H3 (8)
Chapter 2

CHMB31 Chapter 2

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Alen Hadzovic

Chapter 2 Molecular Structure and BondingLewis StructuresCovalent Bond formed when two neighboring atoms share an electron pairSingle Bond a shared electron pair denoted ABDouble Bond two shared electron pairs denoted ABTriple Bond three shared electron pairs denoted ABLone Pair an unshared pair of valence electrons on an atomAtoms share electron pairs until they have acquired an octet of valence electronsoOctet Rule each atom shares electrons with neighboring atoms to achieve a total of eight valence electronsoLewis Structure diagram that shows pattern of bonds and lone pairs in a moleculeDecide on the number of electrons that are to be included in the structure by adding together the numbers of all the valence electrons provided by the atomsWrite the chemical symbols of the atoms in the arrangement that shows which atoms are bonded togetherDistribute the electrons in pairs so that there is one pair of electrons forming a single bond between each pair of atoms bonded together and then supply electron pairs until each atom has an octetResonance between Lewis structures lowers the calculated energy of the molecule and distributes the bonding character of electrons over the moleculeoResonance the actual structure of the molecule is taken to be a superposition or average of all the feasible Lewis structures corresponding to a given arrangementoResonance Hybrid the blended structure of two or more Lewis structuresLewis structures with similar energies provide the greatest resonance stabilizationoResonance averages the bond characteristics over the moleculeoThe energy of a resonance hybrid structure is lower than that of any single contributing structureoAll the structures of the same energy contribute equally to the overall structureoThe greater the energy difference between two Lewis structures the smaller the contribution of the higher energy structureValence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion VSEPR regions of enhanced electron density bonding pairs or lone pairs take up positions as far apart as possible and the shape of the molecule is identified by referring to the locations of the atoms in the resulting structureoWrite down Lewis structure for the molecule or ion and identify the central atomoCount the number of atoms and lone pairs carried by that atom because each atom and each lone pair counts as one region of high electron densityoNote which locations correspond to atoms and identify the shape of the moleculeStereochemically Inert lone pairs that do not influence the molecular geometry and are usually in the nondirectional s orbitals
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