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Chemistry (276)
CHMB42H3 (16)
Chapter 18

CHAPTER 18 - Textbook Notes.docx

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Lana Mikhaylichenko

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CHAPTER 18 CARBONYL COMPOUNDS II Aldehydesthe carbonyl carbon is bonded to a hydrogen and to an alkyl or an aryl groupKetonethe carbonyl carbon is bonded to 2 alkyl or aryl groups 181 The Nomenclature of Aldehydes and KetonesNaming Aldehydes The systematic IUPAC name of an aldehyde is obtained by replacing the final e on the name of the parent hydrocarbon with al Ex 1carbon aldehyde is called methanalThe position of the carbonyl carbon does not have to be designated because it is always at the end of the parent hydrocarbon and therefore always has the 1position The carbon adjacent to the carbonyl carbon is the carbon If the aldehyde group is attached to a ring the aldehyde is named by adding carbaldehyde to the name of the cyclic compound If a compound has 2 functional groups the one with the lower priority is indicated by a prefix and the one with the higher priority by a suffix unless one of the functional groups is an alkene If one of the functional groups is an alkene suffix endings are used for both groups and the alkene functional group is stated first Again the e ending is omitted to avoid 2 successive vowelsNaming Ketones The systematic name of a ketone is obtained by replacing the final e on the end of the name of the parent hydrocarbon with oneThe chain is numbered in the direction that gives the carbonyl carbon the smallerCyclic ketones do not need abecause the carbonyl carbon is assumed to be at the 1position 182 The Relative Reactivities of Carbonyl Compounds The carbonyl group is polar because oxygen being more electronegative than carbon has a greater share of the double bonds electrons Thus the carbonyl carbon is electron deficient and therefore and electrophile and reacts with nucleophiles An aldehyde has a greater partial positive charge on its carbonyl carbon than does a ketone because a hydrogen is more electron withdrawing than an alkyl groupAn aldehyde therefore is more reactive than a ketone toward nucleophilic addition
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