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CHMB62H3 (7)
Chapter 4

Chapter 3 & Chapter 4 .docx

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John Glover

Chapter 3 (3.1, 3.2, 3.3) 3.1  - amino consist of a central carbon atom called the  carbon linked to an amino group a carboxylic acid group, a hydrogen atom and a side chain (called the R group)  the tetrahedral -carbon atom are chiral (two mirror forms called the L isomer and D isomer)  only L amono acid are costituents of proteins  amino acids in solution are at neutral pH o dipolar ion (zwitterions ) o the amino group is protonated (NH ) and the carboxyl group is - 3 deprotonated (COO )  The ionization state of an amino acid varies with the pH o In acid solution the amino group is protonated and the carboxyl group is not dissociated 3.2  General chemical charactertics of their R groups o Hydrophobic amino acids with nonpoler R groups o Polar amino acids with neutral R groups but the vharge is no evenly distributed o Positively charged amino acids with R group that have a positive charge at physiolocigal pH o Negatively charged amino acids with R group that have a negative charge at physiological pH 3.3  Humans cannot make nine amino acids (essential amino acids) o Histidine o Isoleucine o Leucine o Lysine o Methionine o Phenylalanine o Threonine o Tryptophan o Valine Chapter 4 (4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4,5) 4.1  The primary structure – linear polymers formed by linking the -carboxyl group of one of the amino acids to the – amino group of another amino acid  The linkage joining amino acids is a protein is called a peptide bond (amide bond)  The formation of a dipeptide from two amino acids is accompanied by the l
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