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21 Oct 2010
1.1 Atoms & Molecules:
Atoms are the submicroscopic particles which are the building blocks of ordinary
Molecules: formed when two or more atoms joined into a specific geometrical
Properties of substance based on atoms
E.g.: hemoglobin – oxygen carrying molecule in blood cells
o Carbon monoxide affects the hemoglobin and can cause heart and lungs to
work harder= dizziness & weakness
Chemistry is the science behind the behavior of matter by studying the behavior
of their molecules and atoms
1.2 The Scientific Approach to Knowledge:
Scientist observe and experiment to learn about the world
Qualitative noting or describing how a process happens
Quantitative- measuring or quantifying something about the process
Hypothesis is the tentative interpretation or explanation of the observations
A series of observations can lead to a ‘ scientific law
Law of conservation of mass; In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created or
Theory ; way nature does but why?
Atomic Theory; (John Dalton) law of conservation of mass as well as proposed
that matter were small, indestructible particles known as atoms
o Atoms only rearrange in chemical changes- same mass through out
Experiment; highly controlled procedure for generating critical observations
designed to test a theory
Scientific method; observations, experiments, hypothesis, law, theory
1.3 The classification of Matter
Classify matter according to state (solid, liquid or gas) or according to its
composition (pure substance or mixture)
Crystalline; solid made with atoms or molecules in repeating long range eg) salt
Amorphous; repeating patterns but short ex) glass & plastic
Pure substance;
o Either an element that cannot be chemically broken down into smaller
o OR Compound which is composted of two or more elements in fixed
o Homogeneous; made from the same composition throughout
o Heterogeneous; different compositions in different regions
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