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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 – Matter, Measurement and Problem Solving


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHMA10H3
Professor
Ann Verner
Chapter
1

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Chapter 1 Matter, Measurement and Problem Solving
1.1 Atoms and Molecules
- The properties of matter are determined by properties of atoms (Submicroscopic particles
that makes fundamental building block for matter) and molecules (2 or more atoms joined
in specific geometrical arrangement)
Chemistry: Science that seeks to understand behavior of matter by studying behavior of
atoms and molecules
1.2 The Scientific Approach to Knowledge
- Scientific knowledge is empirical (based on observation and experiment) leads to
hypothesis (tentative explanation of observation) test hypothesis through experiments
(highly controlled procedures to generate observations and see if hypothesis is wrong or
correct)
- Series of similar observations can lead to scientific law (brief statement that
summarizes past observation and predicts future ones) or a theory (model for the way
nature is and tries to explain what and why)
- In summary, this is called the scientific method
- Example: Law of Conservation of Mass (Antoine Lavoisier) In a chemical reaction,
matter is neither created nor destroyed (A LAW SUMMARIZES A SERIES OF RELATED
OBSERVATION, WHILE A THEORY GIVES THE UNDERLYING REASONS FOR THEM)
- Example: Atomic Theory (John Dalton) All laws are composed of small, indestructible
particles called atoms,, since they cant be created or destroyed, the total mass is the same
1.3 The Classification of Matter
- Matter is anything occupying space and has mass, a specific matter is a substance, we
classify based on state (physical form) and composition (basic components)
- Solids have atoms that are very closed and in fixed locations, can be crystalline (atoms
/molecules in patterns) or amorphous (do not have long range order)
- Liquids have close atoms but are free to move relative to each other
- Gases have a lot of space between them and are free to mover relative to one another
(compressible)
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