Chapter 3 – Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations

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Published on 14 Apr 2011
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Chapter 3 Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations
3.1 Hydrogen, Oxygen and Water
3.2 Chemical Bonds
- Ionic Bonds: Occurs between metals and nonmetals, transfer of electrons from 1 atom to
another
- Covalent Bonds: Occurs between 2 or more nonmetal , sharing of electrons from 2 atoms
to another
3.3 Representing Compounds: Chemical Formulas and Molecular Models
- Empirical Formula: Relative number of atoms of each element in compound
- Molecular Formula: Actual number of atoms of each element in compound
- Structural Formula: Uses lines to represent covalent bonds and how they are connected or
bonded
- Molecular Models: Ball-and-stick models represents atoms as balls and chemical bonds as
sticks, space -filling molecular models have atoms that fill the space between each other to
more closely
3.4 An Atomic-Level View of Elements and Compounds
- Atomic elements are those that exist in nature with single atoms as their basic units
(most elements)
- Molecular elements dont normally exist in nature with single atoms as their basic
units, they exist as MOLECULES (diatomic such as O2)
- Molecular compounds are usually composed of 2 more covalently-bonded nonmetals
(H2O)
- Ionic compounds are composed of cations and anions basic unit of an ionic compound
is formula unit
- Polyatomic ion is an ion composed of 2 or more atoms
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