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Chapter 22

Chapter 22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals

3 Pages
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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHMA10H3
Professor
Shadi Dalili

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Chapter 22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
22.1 Insulated Nanowires
-1991: Scientists discover Carbon nanotubes (long, thin hollow cylinders of C-atoms), C-
nanotube=sp2 C in fused hexagonal rings (GOOD electrical conductors
- Late 1990s: Similar tubes from Boron Nitride (BN: rings of alternating B and N atoms),
isoelectronic with C, similar size to C, average electronegativity of B & N (same as C), good
electrical conductors
22.2 The Main Group Elements: Bonding and Properties
- Groups 3A 8A: P Block Elements
- Atomic Size and Types of Bonds: Nonmetals on Right side form anions in ionic compounds,
easily reduced, gaining electrons to completely fill p orbitals and attain NOBLE GASS
CONFIGURATION (OZIDIZING REAGENTS: Oxidize other substances while being
reduced), Elements near center of p block share electrons and FORM COVALENT BONDS
- Atomic Radius and Metallic Properties DECREASES ACROSS PERIOD and INCREASES
DOWN GROUP
- Ionization Energy and Electronegativity INCREASES ACROSS PERIOD and
DECREASES DOWN GROUP
- Reactivity varies widely, Some elements on the lower left of p block are metallic (Ti, Pb),
some elements in the center form covalent networks that are unreactive (C, Si), Noble
Gases are highly unreactive, elements in upper right are highly reactive nonmetals
22.5 Carbon, Carbides and Carbonates
- Exhibits different forms, most versatile bonding
- Crytalline Forms
1) Graphite: Trigonal Planar sp2 Cs in 2D array | soft and greasy, conducts electricity,
reacts with acids and oxidizing agents, used in pencil lead and lubricants
2) Diamond: Tetrahedral sp3 Cs in 3D array | Inert to common acids and bases, negative
electron affinity, transparent, hard, thermal conductor, least compressible, very stiff, used
in jewelry, cutting and coating
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Description
Chapter 22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals 22.1 Insulated Nanowires -1991: Scientists discover Carbon nanotubes (long, thin hollow cylinders of C-atoms), C- 2 nanotube=sp C in fused hexagonal rings (GOOD electrical conductors - Late 1990s: Similar tubes from Boron Nitride (BN: rings of alternating B and N atoms), isoelectronic with C, similar size to C, average electronegativity of B & N (same as C), good electrical conductors 22.2 The Main Group Elements: Bonding and Properties - Groups 3A 8A: P Block Elements - Atomic Size and Types of Bonds: Nonmetals on Right side form anions in ionic compounds, easily reduced, gaining electrons to completely fill p orbitals and attain NOBLE GASS CONFIGURATION (OZIDIZING REAGENTS: Oxidize other substances while being reduced), Elements near center of p block share electrons and FORM COVALENT BONDS - Atomic Radius and Metallic Properties DECREASES ACROSS PERIO
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