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Chapter 23

Chapter 23 - Metals and Metallurgy

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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHMA10H3
Professor
Shadi Dalili

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Chapter 23 Metals and Metallurgy
23.2 The General Properties and Natural Distribution of Metals
- All metals are opaque, good conductors of heat and electricity, malleable (flexible) and
ductile (make into wires), in electron sea model, each atom releases valence electron
(electrons occupy energy band called valence band that is delocalized over the entire solid)
- Metals make up 25% of Earths crust, Al is MOST abundant, Alkali and Alkali Earth
Metals make 1%, Fe only transition metal > 5%, Ni, Cu, Ag, Au, Pd and Pt found in native
forms (NOBLE METALS)
- Most metals are found in MINERALS (natural, homogeneous crystalline inorganic solids)
23.4 Metal Structures and Alloys
- Alloys: Metals that have >1 type of metal (base metal and alloying materials), show
metallic properties (show physical properties but engineering properties are different)
- Alloy Composition: Some alloys are solid solutions with vari able composition
- Type of Alloys:
1) Substitutional Alloys: 1 metal atom substitutes another (crystal structure stay the same
or change i.e. brass)
Miscible Solid Solution: [Phase-Composition diagram for Cr-V alloys show smooth
increase in melting point. The dip of the curve indicates that some of the alloys melt
2) Interstitial Alloys: Small nonmetallic atom fits in-between the metal atoms in the crystal
at low concentration = SOLUTION, at high concentration = STOICHIOMETRIC
FORMULA
23.5 Sources, Properties and Products of Some of the 3 d Transition Metals
- Chromium (Chroma, Greek for colour): Forms many compounds with DIFFERENT
COLOURS, is white, hard, lustrous and brittle, can dissolve in acids (i.e. HCl and H2SO4)
but not in HNO3, toxic and carcinogenic, oxidation state +1 +6, mainly used to make
stainless steel, compounds used as pigments and wood preservatives
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Description
Chapter 23 Metals and Metallurgy 23.2 The General Properties and Natural Distribution of Metals - All metals are opaque, good conductors of heat and electricity, malleable (flexible) and ductile (make into wires), in electron sea model, each atom releases valence electron (electrons occupy energy band called valence band that is delocalized over the entire solid) - Metals make up 25% of Earths crust, Al is MOST abundant, Alkali and Alkali Earth Metals make 1%, Fe only transition metal > 5%, Ni, Cu, Ag, Au, Pd and Pt found in native forms (NOBLE METALS) - Most metals are found in MINERALS (natural, homogeneous crystalline inorganic solids) 23.4 Metal Structures and Alloys - Alloys: Metals that have >1 type of metal (base metal and alloying materials), show metallic properties (show physical properties but engineering properties are different) - Alloy Composition: Some alloys are solid solutions with vari able composition
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