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Chapter 24

Chapter 24 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHMA10H3
Professor
Shadi Dalili

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Chapter 24 Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
24.1 The Colour of Rubies and Emeralds
- The colours of rubies and emeralds occurs because of the presence of Cr3+ ions the difference is THE
CRYSTAL HOSTING THE ION
24.2: Properties of Transition Metals
- Electron Configuration of 1st and 2nd Transition Metal Series = [Noble Gas]ns2(n-1)dx
- Electron Configuration of 3rd and 4th Transition Metal Series = [Noble Gas]ns2(n-2)f14(n-1)dx; x= 1-10
- Some elements deviate from the general pattern by promoting>1 s electron into underlying
d to complete subshell (form ions by losing ns electron then the (n-1)d
-Properties of transition metals are similar to each other *due to valence electron configuration) but
different to main group metal properties (high melting points, high densities, moderate to very hard, and
very good electrical conductors)
- Irregular Electron Configuration: Because of sublevel splitting, the 4s < in energy than 3D; 4s
FILLS BEFORE 3d, electron configuration must be found EXPERIMENTALLY
LOOKA T SLIDE 41
- Atomic Size: Atomic Radii are very similar Small increase in size DOWN GROUP, 3rd transition
series atoms are about same size as 2nd series because the # of electrons is ALMOST CONSTANT the
decrease in expected atomic size for the 3rd transition series atoms that comes after then lanthanides
- Ionization Energy: The 1st IE slowly CERASES ACROSS PERIOD, IE of 3rd transition series is
generally > than 1st or 2nd because the valence electrons are held more tightly TREND OPPOSITE TO
MAIN GROUP ELEMENTS
- Oxidation States: Often exhibit multiple oxidation states, Vary by 1
24.3 Coordination Compounds
- Complex Ions: Monoatomic cation combines with multiple monoatomic anion/ neutral molecule =
contains central metal ion bound to one more ligands (Lewis base or electron donor that forms bond with
metal/attached anion or neutral molecule) Charge o complex ion can be =/-, depending on numbers and
types of ligands attached
- Coordination Compounds: Complex ion combines with counter-ions (ions of opposite charge that are
not acting as ligands) to make a neutral compound, Primary Valence = Oxidation Number of Metal,
Secondary Valence = Number of ligands bonded to Metal (Coordination Number, ranges form 2-12)
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Description
Chapter 24 Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds 24.1 The Colour of Rubies and Emeralds - The colours of rubies and emeralds occurs because of the presence of Cr3+ ions the difference is THE CRYSTAL HOSTING THE ION 24.2: Properties of Transition Metals - Electron Configuration of 1 and 2 Transition Metal Series = [Noble Gas]ns (n-1)d 2 x - Electron Configuration of 3 and 4 Transition Metal Series = [Noble Gas]ns (n-2)f (n-1)d ; x= 1-10 x - Some elements deviate from the general pattern by promoting>1 s electron into underlying d to complete subshell (form ions by losing ns electron then the (n-1)d -Properties of transition metals are similar to each other *due to valence electron configuration) but different to main group metal properties (high melting points, high densities, moderate to very hard, and very good electrical conductors) - Irregular Electron Configuration: Because of sublevel splitting, the 4s < in energy than 3D; 4s FILLS BEFORE 3d, electron configuration must be found EXPERIMENTALLY LOOKA T SLIDE 41 rd - Atomic Size: Atomic Radii are very similar Small increase in size DOWN GROUP, 3 transition se
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