CHMB16 Chapter 2
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Chapter 1: Chemical Measurements
•Some SI Units
oLength in meters
oMass in kilograms
oTime in seconds
oElectric Current in ampere
oTemperature in Kelvin
oFrequency in hertz
oForce in Newton
oPressure in pascal, N/m^2 or kg/(m x s^2)
•Using Prefixes as Multipliers
oThe y-axis of a graph is called ordinate and the x-axis is called the
•Converting Between Units
o1 cal = 4.184 J; 1kcal = 4.184 kJ
o1 pound = 0.4536 kg
o1 mile = 1.609 km
•Homogeneous Mixture: a mixture of two or more substances that has a
•Heterogeneous Mixture: a mixture that doesn’t have a uniform composition.
•Solute: minor species in a solution.
•Solvent: major species in a solution.
•Concentration: how much solute is contained in a given volume/mass of
solution or solvent.
•Mole: Avogadro’s number of particles.
•Molarity (M): moles of solute/liters of solution; temperature dependent.
•Atomic Mass: the number of grams containing Avogadro’s number of atoms.
•Molecular Mass: the sum of atomic masses of the atoms in the molecule.
•Electrolyte: a substance that dissociates into ions in solution.
oStrong Electrolyte: mostly dissociated into ions in solution (magnesium
oWeak Electrolyte: partially dissociated into ions in solution (acetic
oFormula Mass (FM): the molecular mass of a strong electrolyte.
oFormal Concentration (F): molarity or concentration of a strong
•Molality (m): moles of solute/kg of solvent; independent of temperature.
•Weight Percent (wt%) = mass of solute/mass of total solution or mixture x 100
•Volume Percent (vol%) = volume of solute/volume of total solution x 100
•Parts Per Million (ppm) = mass of substance/mass of sample x 10^6
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