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Chapter 2

CHMB16 Chapter 2


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHMB16H3
Professor
Kagan Kerman
Chapter
2

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Chapter 1: Chemical Measurements
SI Units
Some SI Units
oLength in meters
oMass in kilograms
oTime in seconds
oElectric Current in ampere
oTemperature in Kelvin
oFrequency in hertz
oForce in Newton
oPressure in pascal, N/m^2 or kg/(m x s^2)
Using Prefixes as Multipliers
oPeta: 10^15
oTera: 10^12
oGiga: 10^9
oMega: 10^6
oMicro: 10^-6
oNano: 10^-9
oPico: 1-^-12
oFemto: 10^-15
oThe y-axis of a graph is called ordinate and the x-axis is called the
abscissa.
Converting Between Units
o1 cal = 4.184 J; 1kcal = 4.184 kJ
o1 pound = 0.4536 kg
o1 mile = 1.609 km
Chemical Concentrations
Homogeneous Mixture: a mixture of two or more substances that has a
uniform composition.
Heterogeneous Mixture: a mixture that doesn’t have a uniform composition.
Solute: minor species in a solution.
Solvent: major species in a solution.
Concentration: how much solute is contained in a given volume/mass of
solution or solvent.
Mole: Avogadro’s number of particles.
Molarity (M): moles of solute/liters of solution; temperature dependent.
Atomic Mass: the number of grams containing Avogadro’s number of atoms.
Molecular Mass: the sum of atomic masses of the atoms in the molecule.
Electrolyte: a substance that dissociates into ions in solution.
oStrong Electrolyte: mostly dissociated into ions in solution (magnesium
chloride).
oWeak Electrolyte: partially dissociated into ions in solution (acetic
acid).
oFormula Mass (FM): the molecular mass of a strong electrolyte.
oFormal Concentration (F): molarity or concentration of a strong
electrolyte.
Molality (m): moles of solute/kg of solvent; independent of temperature.
Weight Percent (wt%) = mass of solute/mass of total solution or mixture x 100
Volume Percent (vol%) = volume of solute/volume of total solution x 100
Parts Per Million (ppm) = mass of substance/mass of sample x 10^6
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