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Chapter 2

CHMB41H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Pi Bond, Heteroatom, Boiling Point

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Shadi Dalili

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Chapter 2 Readings: The Anatomy of an Organic Molecule: Structure and its Naming
2.1 Why it Matters
Cholesterol contributes to the structural
integrity of cell membranes
It’s the starting compound in the
production of many hormones
Composed of sigma bonds between sp3
hybridized carbons with one OH group and one double bond
2.2 Structural Features of Molecules
Structure dictates:
o Colour, boiling point, chemical reactivity, mass, interactions, solubility
Hydrocarbon portion of molecule with carbon and hydrogen only
o Lines or zigzags
o Indicate molecular shape
o Frequently occur as a single chain linear hydrocarbons
o Alkanes are hydrocarbon where all the carbons are sp3 hybridized
o Linear alkane hydrocarbons can turn into branched structures by replacing
hydrogen with other groups (substituents)
Functional group
o Reactive bonds
o Non-bonded electrons
Carbon-hydrogen and carbon-carbon bonds are the HC part of a molecule
o Strong and hard to break
Saturated molecules have no rings and only have single bonds
o CnH2n+2
Unsaturated molecules have rings, double bonds, or triple bonds
o Pi bonds can have Hydrogen gas react with them to become sigma bonds
o Cyclic molecules have rings
Bonds between heavy atoms and hydrogen are replaced with direct
connections to the heavy bonds
2.2.1 Types of Functional Groups
Functional groups give predictable reactivity to molecules
o Identified by pi bonds and heteroatoms
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