The Peloponnesian War!
•The twenty seven year Peloponnesian War enhanced many worst features of the Greek society.!
•The trauma occasioned by the war is fertile, supplying the impetus for many of the changes in
the fourth century and after Alexander’s death in 323BC.!
SOURCES FOR GREECE DURING THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR
•Thucydides’ History is the principal source of the war.!
•The workings of Athenian democracy were explored in a pamphlet called The Constitution of the
•Diodorus and Plutarch continue to be useful.!
•Euripides and Aristophanes were two playwrights who reveal most about what it was like to live
in Athens during the war.!
•Inscriptions, archaeological and topographical investigations could illuminate particular military
•The research is still compromised by lacking of surviving written evidence from any Greek states
THE ARCHIDAMIAN WAR(431-421BC)
•This is the only portion of the war in which any part was played by the man who was most closely
associated with the Athenians’ decision to ﬁght, since Pericles died in 429 BC.!
-The Periclean Strategy and the Plague!
•Pericles conceived the war as defensive. !
•Harassing the Peloponnesian territory with navy, the Athenians declined to participate in hoplite
battle with Spartans. The farmers where asked to move into the city, making it an island. He
proposed that the Peloponnesians would tie of ravaging land without anybody.!
•Pericles held a organized public speech after ﬁrst year of war, with a markedly defensive,
•In the second year, a horrible plague attacked Athens, Pericles caught the plague and died.!
-Cleon and Diodotus: The revolt of Mytilene(428-427BC)!
•The 420s saw a change in character of Athenian government: demagogos who manipulated the
voter for his own ends rather than letting himself be guided by patriotism and principle.!
•Foremost was Cleon, ﬁrst of several leading politicians at Athens who commanded respect in the
assembly without holding generalship.!
•In 428BC, four cities in Lesbos led by Mytilene revolted, indicating strong desire for
•Diodotus convinced the Athenians not to kill the Mytilenians after the decision, with a second
boat to catch up with the ﬁrst.!
-The War Continues!
•Misery and death prevailed elsewhere in Greece.!
•As Thucydides pointed out, the war raging throughout Greece intensiﬁed the long-standing
tensions between the ordinary citizens and the aristocrats. The result was stasis more frequent
and ferocious than ever before.!
•Athenian built up a fort in Sphacteria, then the Spartans sent 420 hoplite on the island.!
•Cleon sent an amarda and captured the Spartan hoplites, putting an end to annual invasion of
-Brasidas and Chalcidice(424-422BC)!
•Brasidas persuaded the towns in Chalcidice to revolt against Athens.!
•Brasidas got hold of Athenian stronghold Amphipolis, when Thucydides was sent and then exiled.!
•Cleon fought against Brasidas in 422BC and both killed.!
•Then it came to peace by the highly problematic agreement Peace of Nicias, a victory for Athens.
because both sides suffered a lot: disruption of agriculture in Athens, men loss, hiring