Readings For Classics (key points(.docx

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Classical Studies
Chris Wallace

a) Hesiod - is a poet (Greek): Work and Days  stresses mortality and ethnics - He outlines that those who work hard in life will be the ones that will be rewarded, while those that are deceitful eventually end up suffering (this can be viewed as being one of the main principles towards living well)  -elements of living well are hard work and honesty  Hesiod’s principle reflects one of the major teachings on the Code of Hammurabi and the Bible. The code emphasizes “an eye for an eye” and the balance of justice in various circumstances, similarly to the Bible teaching that “you reap what you sow” (Galatians 6: 7-8). Hesiod believes that if you work hard and do honest labor, you will succeed in life; again like a balance of justi b) Homer -is a poet (Greek): Iliad  Courage and loyalty are key values that Homer writes about.  presents two individuals known as Achilles and Gilgamesh is that both are men of power.  Achilles is the legendary but reluctant warrior who fought in the Trojan War.( think of the movie Troy)  Gilagmesh was one third man and two thirds god.  both men suffer from immoderation (Lack of Control).  the two men are there vulnerability due to their humanity.  They are depicted as such great warriors that they approach divinity/are partly divine, or at least appear to have a close relationship with the Gods.  Despite being the mightiest of men, they are both humanized by the loss of their friends and are deeply troubled by the looming fate of death.  Achilles symbolizes one of the major themes of the Iliad, the gratification of battle, and it's this desire for glory that impedes his ability to acknowledge his mortality. This is contrary to Gilgamesh’s acceptance of his inevitable fate and realizes that death is a part of life. He only realizes this after the death of Enkidu.  For Gilgamesh, one-third of his humanity is enough to remind him of his mortality. Achilles learns the hard way that his heel was enough to make him vulnerable. Archaic Greece  period in Greece (800 BCE – 480 BCE) is a period of Ancient Greek history  significant period in time because culture was being shaped, democratic cities,  shows women holding important religious/political offices  show women as independent economic agents, both in trades and agriculture  after the dark age (the age in which Greece hit its hardest times...economy fell government arts and literature was being made....there was plague and invaders....basically whatever could go wrong went wrong until the Phoenicians helped them to colonize) roles change ex) Athens, women were not allowed to own land or property - two key poets a) Homer - Greek poet: displays how women can be dominant, but I don't think that they necessarily require empowerment by the gods. For example, when Nausicaa is explaining to Odysseus how he can best gain passage back home, she tells him to ignore her father and rather to make an appeal to her mother. This would imply that the father trusts the mother and the mother has a certain amount of influence. This idea, in addition to Hesiod's ideas about women being deceitful, are paralleled in modern stories where wives are able to influence their husbands, and even control them. b) Sappo - female Greek poet: Lyre both poems: Greeks wanted their wives to be well dressed, beautiful and sort of a goddess type. Women had specific gender roles such as washing clothes and making sure their loved ones (husbands, brothers, and sons) are properly dressed and groomed before going out. For women the concept of marriage is a very important, a goal of a wife was to have a peaceful home and husband “ there is nothing better in this world than that man and wife should be of one mind in a house.” If a women was not married they would be frowned upon in their society she would have ruined her family name and also disappointed her parents. Classical Greece : Starts with the Persian War (490-479 B.C.) and ends with the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.) In this period of Ancient Greece, the Greeks produced great literature, poetry, philosophy, drama, and art. Classical Greece includes the period known as the Age of Pericles. Herodotus: Greek historian, famous for his History dealing with the causes and events of the wars between the Greeks and the Persians. Shows how Greeks felt about their sense of honor, duty and their notion of valor. For Greeks to truly follow their laws so seriously and diligently, they must have abided very closely to this system of honor that Herodotus and Thucydides both describe. Pericles' states himself that brothers and sons of fallen soldiers have a tough time ahead of them: being in cast in the great shadow and needing to live up the renown shows that giving your life in battle must have been the ultimate form of honor. Seeing such a seemingly noble, honor-bound mentality that motivates Greek warriors in contrast to the whips that Xerxes employs to motivate his men is truly astounding. Thucydides: Athenian government as a democracy where people have a great amount of respect and freedom. Emphasizes freedom of men in Athens. Shows that men have this instilled fear of the laws: Throughout the rest of the speech he goes on talking about recruiting citizens of other countries into their army and trying to take care of poverty while encouraging education. He basically makes Athens seem like a fair community and one which is organized and well-run. He makes it seem like an ideal society. Aristophanes: this play is all about woman but is written by a man. With this concept in mind it makes me believe that this image shown in the play of how woman have complete power over men through sexual relations and doing the rest of her 'duties' is a very truthful fact in this time period. The duties being to keep the home and children clean and well fed, lastly to have the man's desire also well fed. Other than that the woman is nothing. Aristophanes is showing everyone in the community who watches the play that woman do have immense power over the men. With all of the jokes that are in the play and references of the wars that are happening around at that time just draws the audience more into the story and then they listen to what the message of the play is all about. So I think Aristophanes was trying to give woman a voice.  From the beginning it is depicted that women are really good for nothing and can't be depended on when they all come late, then when the Lampito comes, Lysistrata merely focuses on how fit her body is and makes comments on her breasts. They are so superficial and seem to only speak about physical attributes and sexual power, there is no instance where any of them even fathom the idea that they could convince their husbands through logic or any type of conversation. Plato: Plato does not seem to be a big fan of a democratic society. Plato is very specific in describing his ideal ruler ( someone who has reached full knowledge) and dismisses the "uneducated", and the "inexperienced in truth". Plato's i
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