CLAA06H3: Chapter 6-8 Review
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Department
Classical Studies
Course
CLAA06H3
Professor
Alexandra Pohlod
Semester
Summer

Description
Helen  Li     CLAA06H3     Chapter  6   Zeus  and  Hera   Poseidon  and  Hades   Anthropomorphism     The  Twelve  Olympians   The  divine  "family."   • Cronos’  myth  contradictory:   – a  tyrant  or  wise  ruler  of  the  Golden  Age   • Six  children  of  Cronos  and  Rhea  are  the  first  Olympians:   – Zeus,  Hera,  Poseidon,  Demeter,  Hestia,  Hades   – (Aphrodite  born  of  his  severed  genitals  in  one  version  of  her  birth)     • All  except  Hades  lived  on  Olympus   • There  will  be  a  total  of  12  –  or  13  or  14  –  Olympians   • Zeus  is  the  great  father/king  of  this  court  of  gods  and  goddesses     Zeus,  Lord  of  the  Sky   • Indo-­‐European  sky  god  (di-­‐)   • Like  Tiu  (Germanic)  in  Tuesday;  Dyspater  -­‐  Jupiter   • Lived  in  the  mountains  (Olympus,  Mt.  Ida  near  Troy)  and  brought  storms  (his  thunderbolt)   • By  far  the  most  powerful  of  the  gods     • Symbol  of  his  power  is  the  aigis   • Animals  are  the  bull  and  the  eagle   Zeus,  God  of  Justice   Upholder  of  "the  way"  (dikê)   • Guardian  of  justice  (the  way)   – Not  originally  the  abstract  ideal  of  justice  (what  is  right  in  all  situations).   • Protector  of  xenia   Perspective  6.2   The  Loves  of  Zeus  in  European  Art.   • Titian:  Danaë       • Allegri:  Leda  and  the  Swan       • Jupiter  Abducting  Ganymede     • Charles-­‐Joseph  Natoire   • Pierre:  The  Rape  of  Europa       Seduction  of  Zeus  by  Hera   Zeus's  115  consorts   • Zeus  the  sky-­‐god  acquires  features  of  the  male,  fertility  consort  of  the  earth-­‐mother   • Crete  –  the  tomb  of  Zeus?   • Hera,  an  original  earth-­‐mother,  is  “demoted”  to  be  his  wife.   – Original  wife  (Dione  from  north)?   • Through  sexual  generation,  he  structures  the  world     Zeus  and  Fate   Through  his  many  consorts  he  shapes  the  world.   • Metis  “cleverness”  –  Athena   – strength  and  judgment   • Themis  “established  law”–     – Horae  (Eirenê,  Eunomiê,  Dikê)   – Moerae  (fates)  (Clotho,  Lachesis,  Atropos)   • Mnemosyne  “memory”–  9  Muses   • Dione  “shinning  one”  –  Aphrodite     • Horae   • Moerae   • Lachesis   • Yet  Zeus  cannot  (or  will  not)  prevent  the  death  of  Sarpedon,  his  own  son.   Some  other  loves  of  Zeus   The  Graces  (with  Eurynomê);  the  Muses  (from  Mnemosynê);  Ganymede   • Zeus  and  Ganymede   – Zeus  takes  on  many  aspects  of  a  Greek  aristocrat,  such  as  pederasty   • Zeus  and  Ganymede.  Zeus  acquires  many  of  the  features  of  Greek  aristocracy,  including  pederasty.   Perspective  6.1  The  Three  Graces   The  children  of  Zeus  and  Eurynomê   • Perspective  6.1a  A  wall  painting  in  Pompeii   • The  "Three  Graces  Type."     Hera,  Queen  of  Heaven   "Cow-­‐eyed"  Hera   • Marriage,  sexuality,  fertility   • Her  children  with  Zeus   – Eileithyia,  Hebe,  Ares   • Mother  of  Hephaestus  (?)   • Other  versions  of  Hephaestus’s  birth   – Hera  alone   – born  or  made  lame?   • Some  of  the  most  magnificent  temples  are  to  her  (a  Heraeum)   • Argos  (Argives)   • Persecuted  Zeus’s  paramours  and  sometimes  their  offspring   – Heracles  “glory  of  Hera”   • Join  a  temporary  rebellion  with  Poseidon  and  Athena   Zeus  and  Hera  at  Home  on  Olympus   Unhappily  ever  after   • A  tempestuous  marriage   • The  scene  between  Thetis  at  Zeus  from  the  Iliad  shows  Zeus  walked  on  egg  shells  to  avoid   irritating  Hera   • Hephaestus,  their  children  intervenes  to  stop  the  fight   Poseidon,  Lord  of  the  deep   Zeus's  brother  rules  over  the  sea.   • Husband  (posis)   • An  Indo-­‐European  male  fertility  god   • This  explains  the  tangle  of  his  competencies   – original:  springs,  horses,  earthquakes   – acquired:  sea   • Married  to  “Amphitrite”   • Father  of  Triton   • The  competition  in  Athens   – He  offers  the  Athenians  salt  water??   • Lost  also  in  Argos   • Impregnated  Medusa   • Pegasus  born  when  Medusa  killed  by  Perseus   • Poseidon  (or  Zeus)  from  470-­‐450  B.C.     Hades,  king  of  the  dead   The  king  of  the  underworld  did  not  live  on  Olympus.   • "The  invisible”  (Helmet  from  the  Cyclops)   • “Pluto”  (wealth)   • Lord  of  the  dead  who  inhabit  the  top  layer  of  soil   • Abduction  and  Marriage  to  Persephone  (daughter  of  Demeter),  discussed  in  Chapter  11   Observations   Greek  Anthropomorphism   • Gods  are  human-­‐shaped  and  humanlike,  an  inheritance  perhaps  from  Mesopotamian  traditions   • They  eat  and  drink  (special  divine  substances  to  be  sure).   • They  laugh,  get  angry  and  jealous,  and  can  even  be  wounded.   • Anthropomorphism  makes  interesting  narrative  and  great  myths   • The  Greek  Olympian  gods  not  only  have  human  shape,  but  they  also  have  human  characteristics   and  the  full  range  of  human  emotions.   • They  can  even  be  wounded.   – Ares,  for  example,  on  the  battlefield  of  Troy   • Anthropomorphism  makes  it  easier  to  create  stories  about  the  gods.   • Nevertheless,  even  if  the  Greek  gods  were  like  fun-­‐loving  mortals  some  of  the  time,  there  was   something  about  them  that  the  Greeks  took  very  seriously.   Chapter  7   Myths  of  the  Great  God  Apollo     APOLLO  THE  FAR-­‐DARTER,  GOD  OF  PROPHECY   Apollo  guided  men  to  higher  knowledge.   • From  Lycia  (Asia  Minor)  <  his  epithet  "Lycian"?   • Has  elements  from  the  north  with  the  Hyperboreans.   • Mother  Leto  is  perhaps  a  mother-­‐earth  goddess  from  Lycia  or  Crete.   – Originally  having  nothing  to  do  with  Apollo  or  his  sister  Artemis   • Sometimes  he's  the  sun  god.   – Hence  his  association  with  Artemis  (the  moon  goddess)   • His  arrows  bring  plague  and  disease.   – He's  the  god  of  mice  and  plagues  the  first  time  we  see  him  in  Homer   • Apollo  and  Dionysus  at  Delphi.     • His  epithet  shows  his  origin   • Lycia  or  Lycus  
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