Textbook Notes (270,000)
CA (160,000)
UTSC (20,000)
Chapter

chapter notes


Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA01H3
Professor
Carl Mitchell

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 3 pages of the document.
Chapter 15
- geothermal power from Earth’s core
- gravitational pull of the Moon and sun ocean tides
fossil fuels: highly combustible substances formed from the remains of organisms from past geologic
ages oil, coal, and natural gas
aerobic decomposition: in the presence of air, bacteria and other organisms that use oxygen to break
down plant and animal remains into simpler carbon molecules that are recycled through the ecosystem
anaerobic environment: one that has little or no oxygen bottoms of shallow seas, deep lakes, and
swamps
kerogen: an oil precursor formed through decomposition of organic matter which have accumulated at
bottoms of water bodies
+ geothermal heating to create crude oil and natural gas
- natural gas can also be produced nearer the surface by anaerobic bacterial decomposition of
organic matter
o methane and typically includes varying amounts of other volatile hydrocarbons
o ¼ of global commercial energy consumption cleaner-burning fuel less pollution
o Biogenic gas @ shallow depths by the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter by
bacteria
o Thermogenic gas @ compression of organic material + heat deep underground
o Precursor materials from animal and plant matter
o Maturation as organic matter is buried deeper under sediments, the pressure exerted
by the overlying sediments grows and temperatures increase
o Coalbed methane commonly leaks into the atmosphere during mining
o Versatile and clean-burning, emitting half as much CO2/e as coal and 2/3 as oil
o Can be converted to liquids at low temperatures (liquefied natural gas)
- oil and gas resides in porous rock layers beneath dense, impervious layers
o offshore drilling
o 37% of worlds commercial energy consumption
o Forms in temperature/pressure conditions found 1.5-3km below the surface by dead
plant & animal material
o Mixture of hundreds of different types of hydrocarbon molecules characterized by
carbon chains of different lengths
o After produced, liquid migrates upward through rock pores
o Technology sets a limit on the amount that can be extracted; economics determines
how much will be extracted
o Oil already under pressure
o If pressure is already relieved, oil/natural gas becomes harder to extract and needs to be
pumped out
o Primary extraction: the initial drilling and pumping of available oil
o Secondary extraction: solvents are used/underground rocks are flushed with
water/steam to remove additional oil
o Refining process: separate its various components
- coal is formed when plant matter is compacted so tightly that there is little decomposition
o organic matter (generally woody plant material) compressed to form a dense-carbon
rich solid material
o precursor is peat (a moist soil composed of compressed organic matter)
o ¼ of the worlds commercial energy consumption
www.notesolution.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version