Textbook Notes (381,224)
CA (168,409)
UTSC (19,325)
EESA01H3 (82)
Chapter

chapter notes

3 Pages
181 Views

Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA01H3
Professor
Carl Mitchell

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 3 pages of the document.
Chapter 16
- 81% of world’s energy comes from oil, coal, and natural gas
- Powers 2/3 of world’s electricity generation
- conventional alternatives to fossil fuels Æ less environmental impact
- Fuel and biomass = 10.0% of world’s energy; nuclear power = 6.3%; hydropower = 2.2%
- Nuclear & hydropower each accounts for 1/6 of world’s electricity generation
Hydropower: uses the kinetic energy of moving water to turn turbines and generate electricity
- Storage: keeping immense amounts of water stored behind the dam
- Reservoir water passes through a dam Æ turns blades of turbines Æ generator generates
electricity Æ transmitted to electric grid by transmission lines
- Run-of-river: generates electricity without disrupting the flow of river water
- sacrifices the reliability of water flow across seasons minimizes the impacts of large dams
- divert a portion of a rivers flow through a pipe/channel Æ powerhouse Æ back to river
- 2.2% of world’s energy supply, 16.0% of the world’s electricity production
- For flood control and irrigation
- Renewable as long as precipitation falls from the sky and fills rivers/reservoirs
- Cleanliness no carbon compounds are burned in the production of hydropower no CO2 or
other pollutants are emitted into the atmosphere
- Fossil fuels are used in constructing and maintaining dams
- EROI = ~10:1
Negative impacts
- Destroys habitat for wildlife, natural flooding cycles of rivers are disrupted, sediments become
trapped behind dams
- thermal pollution (water downstream may become unusually warm if water levels are kept
unnaturally shallow Æ period flushes of cold water)
- Æ thermal shocks + habitat alteration = diminished or eliminated native fish populations
- blocks passage of fish/other aquatic creatures fragmenting the river and reducing biodiversity
- weight of water in a large reservoir Æ geological impacts e.g. earthquakes
- dam collapses result of earthquakes/landslides/degradation of construction materials
not much room for expansion
- not many more rivers to dam
- more awareness about ecological impacts of dams
- regional residents are resisting dam construction
- International Energy Agency (IEA) hydropowers ability to generate will decline, other
renewable energy sources will triple 2% Æ 6%
Nuclear power: usable energy extracted from the force that binds atomic nuclei together
- Free of air pollution
- Nuclear energy: the energy that holds together protons and neutrons within the nucleus of an
atom
- Æ thermal energy Æ generate electricity
- Nuclear fission: splitting apart an atomic nuclei
- Neutrons are slowed down in order to break apart
- Each split nucleus emits heat/radiation/multiple neutrons
- Can become positive feedback that release enormous amounts of energy (nuclear bomb)
- Nuclear reactors: facilities contained within nuclear power plants
- uranium ore is finite
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 16 - 81% of worlds energy comes from oil, coal, and natural gas - Powers 23 of worlds electricity generation - conventional alternatives to fossil fuels less environmental impact - Fuel and biomass = 10.0% of worlds energy; nuclear power = 6.3%; hydropower = 2.2% - Nuclear & hydropower each accounts for 16 of worlds electricity generation Hydropower: uses the kinetic energy of moving water to turn turbines and generate electricity - Storage: keeping immense amounts of water stored behind the dam - Reservoir water passes through a dam turns blades of turbines generator generates electricity transmitted to electric grid by transmission lines - Run-of-river: generates electricity without disrupting the flow of river water - sacrifices the reliability of water flow across seasons minimizes the impacts of large dams - divert a portion of a rivers flow through a pipechannel powerhouse back to river - 2.2% of worlds energy supply, 16.0% of the worlds electricity production - For flood control and irrigation - Renewable as long as precipitation falls from the sky and fills riversreservoirs - Cleanliness no carbon compounds are burned in the production of hydropower no CO2 or other pollutants are emitted into the atmosphere - Fossil fuels are used in constructing and maintaining dams - EROI = ~10:1 Negative impacts - Destroys habitat for wildlife, natural flooding cycles of rivers are disrupted, sediments become trapped
More Less
Unlock Document


Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit