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Chapter 2

EESA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: North American Plate, Chemotroph, San Andreas Fault

Environmental Science
Course Code
Carl Mitchell

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Chapter 2
Scientific Study
1. Observations
2. Ask questions
3. Make hypothesis
4. Make predictions
5. Test predictions
6. Analyze + interpret results
Scientific Study pt. 2
1. Peer Review
2. Grants and funding
3. Repeatability, consensus, and theories
Chemical Bonds
Covalent: share electrons
Ionic: transfer electrons(lose/gain)
Table salt: NaCl -> Na+ Cl-
Solutions: mixture of substances
Ex. Air, blood, crude oil
Hydrogen Bond: oxygen strongly attracted to 2 hydrogen atoms in
H2O while weakly attracted to hydrogen atoms of another H2O
H2O is Key
Wide temperature range: 0*-100*C
Strong Cohesion: fluidity allows transportation of chemicals such
as nutrients and waste
High heat capacity: stabilize eco-systems during times of rapid
Ice less dense than water: due to spacious crystal lattice bonds,
results is insulation that prevents water below the ice from
Fresh water reaches max density at 4*C
Bonds well with other polar molecules: universal solvent
Transparency to light: allows for photosynthesis
pH Scale
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Aqueous solutions(H2O) dissociate into hydrogen ion(H+) and
hydrogen oxide ion(OH-)
More H+ = higher acidity
• 0-14
0 = acidic, 7 = neutral, 14 = basic
Organic: carbon atoms joined by covalent bonds(must have
carbon-carbon molecule)
Inorganic: any compound without carbon-carbon bond(can have
one carbon, but not a molecule)
Macro Molecules
• Proteins
Long chains of amino acids
Folding pattern affects protein's function
Store energy
Help immune system
Act as hormones
Serve as enzymes
Nucleic Acids
Deoxyribonucleic Acid(DNA)
Carry hereditary info
Pass traits from parent to offspring
Ribonucleic Acid(RNA)
Use genes to assemble amino acids into proteins
Nucleotides inside DNA
Contains phosphate group, sugar molecule, and
nitrogenous base
Sugar phosphate acts as 2 long spiraling pieces of ladder
holding nucleotides in center as steps
• Carbohydrates
Glucose(C6H12O6) most common + important carb
Base of complex carbs
Cellulose is most organic compound
Shells form from carb chitin
Doesn’t dissolve in water
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Structure similar to gasoline: store energy + release when
Phospholipids are primary component of animal cell
Hydrophobic side: water repellent side
Hydrophillic side: water attracting side
Capacity to change position, physical composition, or temperature
of matter
Convert molecules w high energy bonds into molecules w
low energy bonds
Releasing potential energy into kinetic energy
This release of energy produces motion, action, or heat
Types of Energy
Thermal energy
Light energy
Electrical energy
Sound energy
First Law of Thermodynamics
Total energy in the universe remains constant
Energy can be converted from one form to another, but
never destroyed nor created
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Nature or quality of energy will change from more ordered
state to less ordered state if no force counteracts this
tendency; this is change in state is called Entropy
TLDR: every transfer of energy results in some energy being
converted into a less-usable form(never destroyed)
Light Energy
Electromagnetic Spectrum: range of wavelengths of
Gamma Radiation: shortest wavelengths
Radio Waves: longest wavelengths
Solar energy drives weather and climate patters: winds and
ocean currents
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