Textbook Notes (378,537)
CA (167,156)
UTSC (19,214)
EESA01H3 (82)
Chapter 11

CHAPTER 11 DETAILED NOTES FOR 4.0

17 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA01H3
Professor
Carl Mitchell

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Freshwater Systems
Roughly 97.5% of earths water resides on the oceans and Is too salty to drink or to
use to water crops.
o2.5% is considered freshwater , water that is relatively pure, with few
dissolved salts.
Some of which is tied up in glaciers, icecaps and underground
aquifers, just over 1 part in 10000 of earths water is easily accessible
for human use.
Water is moving among reservoirs via the hydrological cycle
oAs it moves it redistributes heat, erodes mountain ranges, builds river deltas,
maintains organisms and ecosystems, shapes civilizations, and gives rise to
political conflict
Rivers and streams wind through landscapes
Water from rain, snowmelt, or springs runs downhill and converges where the land
dips lowest, forming streams, creeks or brooks.
oThese watercourses merge into rivers, which eventually lead to ocean.
A small river flowing into a larger one is a tributary
The area of land drained by a river and all its tributaries is that
rivers drainage basin or watershed
Rivers shape the landscape through which they run.
oThe force of water gradually eats at the outer shore, eroding soil from the
bank
Meanwhile, sediment is deposited along the inside of the bend, where
water currents are weaker. Because of this, river bends become
exaggerated in shape
Eventually a bend may become such an extreme loop (oxbow)
that water erodes a short cut from one end of the loop to the
other creating a direct course. (oxbox lake)
www.notesolution.com
Areas nearest a rivers course that are flooded periodically are said to be within a
rivers floodplain
Agriculture thrives in foodplains and riparian (river side) forests are productive
and species rich.
Wetlands include marshes, swamps and bogs
Wetlands are systems that combine elements of freshwater and dry land.
in freshwater marshes shallow water allows plants to grow above the waters
surface.
Swamps also consist of shallow water rich in vegetation, but they occur in forested
areas.
oAlso created when beavers build dams across streams with limbs from trees
they have cut, flooding wooden areas upstream.
Bogs are ponds thoroughly covered with thick floating mats of vegetation and can
represent a stage in aquatic succession.
Wetland are extremely valuable as habitat for wildlife & also provide important
ecosystem services by slowing runoff, reducing flooding, recharging aquifers, and
filtering pollutants.
Lakes and ponds are ecologically diverse systems
The region ringing the edge of a water body is named the littoral zone.
oWater is shallow enough here that aquatic plants grow from the mud and
reach above waters surface
oHas a lot of crayfish, snails, insect larvae for fish, birds, turtles and
amphibians to feed off of.
The benthic zone extends along the bottom of the entire water body
oMany invertebrates live here feeding on detritus or preying on one another
Sunlight penetrates shallow waters of the limnetic zone
oLimnetic zone supports phytoplankton
www.notesolution.com
oSunlight intensity decreases with depth, clear water allows sunlight to
penetrate deeply.
Below the limnetic zone is the profundal zone , the volume of open water that
sunlight does not reach
oLacks plant life and supports fewer animals.
Oligotrophic lakes and ponds, which have low-nutrient and high-oxygen conditions,
may slowly give way to the high nutrient, low-oxygen conditions of eutrophic water
bodies
oLakes or ponds change over time, specie sof fish, plants and invertebrates
adapted to oligotrophic conditions may give way to those that thrive under
eutrophic conditions.
Lakes as big as the great lakes hold so much water that their biota is adapted to
open water making them differ substantially in their characteristics from small
lakes.
Groundwater plays key roles in the hydrologic cycle
Most precipitation percolates downward through the soil to become groundwater
oGroundwater makes up 1/5 of earths freshwater supply
oIs contained within aquifers: porous formations of rock, sand, or gravel that
hold water.
An aquifers upper layer (zone of aeration) contains pore spaces filled
with air
In the lower layer (zone of saturation) the spaces are filled with water
The boundary between these two zones is the water table
oEx. Picture a sponge resting partly in a tray of water
(top contains some water but bottom contains more)
Any area where water infiltrates earths surface and reaches an aquifer below is
known as an aquifer recharge zone
There are two broad categories of aquifers
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Freshwater Systems Roughly 97.5% of earths water resides on the oceans and Is too salty to drink or to use to water crops. o 2.5% is considered freshwater , water that is relatively pure, with few dissolved salts. Some of which is tied up in glaciers, icecaps and underground aquifers, just over 1 part in 10000 of earths water is easily accessible for human use. Water is moving among reservoirs via the hydrological cycle o As it moves it redistributes heat, erodes mountain ranges, builds river deltas, maintains organisms and ecosystems, shapes civilizations, and gives rise to political conflict Rivers and streams wind through landscapes Water from rain, snowmelt, or springs runs downhill and converges where the land dips lowest, forming streams, creeks or brooks. o These watercourses merge into rivers, which eventually lead to ocean. A small river flowing into a larger one is a tributary The area of land drained by a river and all its tributaries is that rivers drainage basin or watershed Rivers shape the landscape through which they run. o The force of water gradually eats at the outer shore, eroding soil from the bank Meanwhile, sediment is deposited along the inside of the bend, where water currents are weaker. Because of this, river bends become exaggerated in shape Eventually a bend may become such an extreme loop (oxbow) that water erodes a short cut from one end of the loop to the other creating a direct course. (oxbox lake) www.notesolution.com Areas nearest a rivers course that are flooded periodically are said to be within a rivers floodplain Agriculture thrives in foodplains and riparian (river side) forests are productive and species rich. Wetlands include marshes, swamps and bogs Wetlands are systems that combine elements of freshwater and dry land. in freshwater marshes shallow water allows plants to grow above the waters surface. Swamps also consist of shallow water rich in vegetation, but they occur in forested areas. o Also created when beavers build dams across streams with limbs from trees they have cut, flooding wooden areas upstream. Bogs are ponds thoroughly covered with thick floating mats of vegetation and can represent a stage in aquatic succession. Wetland are extremely valuable as habitat for wildlife & also provide important ecosystem services by slowing runoff, reducing flooding, recharging aquifers, and filtering pollutants. Lakes and ponds are ecologically diverse systems The region ringing the edge of a water body is named the littoral zone. o Water is shallow enough here that aquatic plants grow from the mud and reach above waters surface o Has a lot of crayfish, snails, insect larvae for fish, birds, turtles and amphibians to feed off of. The benthic zone extends along the bottom of the entire water body o Many invertebrates live here feeding on detritus or preying on one another Sunlight penetrates shallow waters of the limnetic zone o Limnetic zone supports phytoplankton www.notesolution.com
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