Chapter 5.docx

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12 Apr 2012

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Chapter 5
What are Minerals?
- Heat, pressure, oxygen, available atoms, acid content play a role in determining minerals form
- About 4500 kinds of minerals
- Mineral properties colour, lustre, hardness, chemical composition, the transmission of light
under a microscope
- Each type of mineral has its own orderly internal (crystalline) structure at the atomic level
- Crystals perfectly formed minerals mineral specimens whose surfaces consist of faces, edges,
and corners that show beautiful geometrical symmetry
- 230 different kinds of symmetrical atomic arrangements possible in nature and each mineral
type exhibits one or several of these 230 arrangements
- Crystalline substance is one in which the atoms are arranged in a three dimensional, regularly
repeating, orderly pattern. (universal internal property)
- Crystal structure
- Minerals a family of naturally occurring, crystalline substances that are physically and
chemically distinctive. They are building blocks of rock, compositionally inorganic (no carbon-
hydrogen molecules)
- Quartz made up of oxygen and silicon atoms SiO2
What Are Atoms and Elements?
- Atoms the smallest, electrically neutral assemblies of energy and matter that we know exist in
the universe
- Electrons move in directions that allow them to balance out “neutralize” their charges
- Nucleus the core of the atom which contain neutrons and protons
- 92 different kinds of naturally occurring atoms
- Element defined by the number of protons in its nucleus
- Electrons continuously moving and will spend most of its time as part of an energy level
- Most stable configuration to have complete energy level
- Bonding of minerals
- Ion an electrically charged atom combination of negative and positive ions in a stable
Ions and Crystalline Structures
- First energy level 2 electroncs, second, third 8 electrons
- Positively charged ions are called cations
- Chlorine negatively charged ion, anion
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