Textbook Notes (378,344)
CA (167,126)
UTSC (19,207)
EESA06H3 (240)
Nick Eyles (207)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes

5 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA06H3
Professor
Nick Eyles

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Chapter 1 - Introduction to Physical Geology and the Environment
WHAT IS GEOLOGY?
The study of the earth… first known geological map was created by ancient Egyptians over 3000 years
ago .
The industrial revolution in north Europe created a growing demand for energy and minerals such as
coal, limestone, iron and water.
Earliest geological maps William smith 1815
In the 17th century they believed that the earth was about 6,000 years old… but now the age of the earth
bas been determined to be at least 4,500 million years.
The ever-changing nature of physical environments on planet earth (such as the positioning of the
continents), together with the role of extraterrestrial processes (such as meteorite impacts), are seen as
having largely controlled the evolution of the life forms.
Moving Continents
Alfred Wegener suggested the movement of continents. He recognized that todays continents have
previously been clustered together in a large land mass but has been moved apart.
Land Mass called Pangea
Canadian geophysicist, J.Tuzo Wilson who in the early 70s was responsible for brining together several
of the key elements of what we now know as plate tectonics theory.
Time and Geology
Geology involves vastly greater amounts of time, often referred to as deep time.
Some geological processes occur quickly, such as great landslide or a volcanic eruption. These events
occur when stored energy is suddenly released.
Rapidly” to a geologist may mean that within a few million years the hill will be reduced nearly to a
plain.
The rate of plate motion is relatively fast. If new magma erupts and solidifies along a mid-oceanic
ridge (a giant mountain range that lies under the ocean), we can easily calculate how long it will take
that igneous rock to move 1,000 kilometers away from the crest of the ridge.
WHAT DO GEOSCIENTISTS DO?
Exploration geologists may work for an exploration company looking for gold, silver, and other
metals – more recently for diamonds.
The whole point of prospecting is to find something and then get it to the market before any else does.
The location of geological resources is more important than ever, but at the same time the skills of the
geoscientist are acquired to address additional issues such as mitigation of the effects of natural hazards
and other environmental concerns.
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Geochemists are comfortable working in ordered environment of the laboratory and use high-
technology equipment to analyze the chemistry of rocks or minerals. They may consult with
mineralogists, who study minerals, or petrologists, who study the make up of rocks and how they form
(more often than not by volcanic activity and by being altered by head and pressure either at the earths
surface or deep below).
Geophysicists geologists employ high-tech equipment in the field, using boats, ships, planes, or
satellites to learn more of the nature of the physical conditions on or under the earths surface. Similar
techniques can be used by petroleum geologists (in search for oil and gas).
Seismologists study how to measure and mitigate earthquake activity.
Paleontologists
specialist who studies the fossilized remains f ancient organisms, whether gigantic
dinosaurs or the remains of organisms too small to see.
Glacial Geologists studies landforms and sediments.
Hydrogeologists sediments contain and transmit water, an increasingly important mineral that is
studied and protected by hydrogeologists.
Professional associations – the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario (APGO) or the
Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of Alberta (APEGGA).
Environment Geology: New Challenges for Geoscientists
Finding and managing of drinking water (mostly ground water), and in dealing with a wide variety of
wastes ranging from radioactive waste to household (municipal) waste. Environmental Geoscientists
Real estate and insurance businesses also employ environmental geoscientist to provide key
information regarding past used of lands and building as part of due diligence process.
Engineering geologists work closely with civil engineers and are concerned with providing information
about the substrates on which buildings, roads, bridges, and other infrastructure are to be built. They
need to know what soils or rocks might create problems for that foundation.
Creation of digital maps and 3D geological models for resource exploration and environmental and
engineering applications is one of the roles of a new type of geoscientist called a geomatician.
Common Themes
Today’s geoscientists usually work as part of a team with biologists, lawyers, engineers, planners and
policy makers. He or she commonly works for an environmental consulting company or increasingly
municipal or provincial government.
WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD?
Scientific method identifies a problem; select a methodology to collect data in order to help solve
the problem. Having collected the data they then analyze and interpret the information possibly using
maps or computer graphics as tools and come up with a solution.
Using data that are appropriate to solve the problem, the geologists create a hypothesis.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Physical Geology and the Environment WHAT IS GEOLOGY? The study of the earth first known geological map was created by ancient Egyptians over 3000 years ago . The industrial revolution in north Europe created a growing demand for energy and minerals such as coal, limestone, iron and water. Earliest geological maps William smith 1815 th In the 17 century they believed that the earth was about 6,000 years old but now the age of the earth bas been determined to be at least 4,500 million years. The ever-changing nature of physical environments on planet earth (such as the positioning of the continents), together with the role of extraterrestrial processes (such as meteorite impacts), are seen as having largely controlled the evolution of the life forms. Moving Continents Alfred Wegener suggested the movement of continents. He recognized that todays continents have previously been clustered together in a large land mass but has been moved apart. Land Mass called Pangea Canadian geophysicist, J.Tuzo Wilson who in the early 70s was responsible for brining together several of the key elements of what we now know as plate tectonics theory. Time and Geology Geology involves vastly greater amounts of time, often referred to as deep time. Some geological processes occur quickly, such as great landslide or a volcanic eruption. These events occur when stored energy is suddenly released. Rapidly to a geologist may mean that within a few million years the hill will be reduced nearly to a plain. The rate of plate motion is relatively fast. If new magma erupts and solidifies along a mid-oceanic ridge (a giant mountain range that lies under the ocean), we can easily calculate how long it will take that igneous rock to move 1,000 kilometers away from the crest of the ridge. WHAT DO GEOSCIENTISTS DO? Exploration geologists may work for an exploration company looking for gold, silver, and other metals more recently for diamonds. The whole point of prospecting is to find something and then get it to the market before any else does. The location of geological resources is more important than ever, but at the same time the skills of the geoscientist are acquired to address additional issues such as mitigation of the effects of natural hazards and other environmental concerns. www.notesolution.com
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