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EESA06H3 (240)
Nick Eyles (207)
Chapter 4

chapter 4

4 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA06H3
Professor
Nick Eyles

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Chapter 4
The Earths Interior
the earth’s crust is a thin skin of rock
earth is divided into three major layers
othe crust
othe mantle
othe core
seismic reflection and refraction suggest that the continents are largely igneous and metamorphic
rock, such as granite and gneiss, overlain by a veneer of sedimentary rocks
geophysicsthe application of physical laws and principles to a study of the earth
seismic reflection – the return of some of the energy of seismic waves to the earth’s surface after
the waves bounce off a rock boundary
othese reflected waves are recorded on a seismogram, which shows the amount of time the
waves took to travel down to the boundary, reflect off it, and return to the surface
seismic refraction – the bending of seismic waves as they pass from one material to another
oas a seismic wave strikes a rock boundary, much of the energy of the wave passes across
the boundary
oas the wave crosses from one rock layer to another, it changes direction
occurs only if the velocity of seismic waves is different in each layer
What is Inside the Earth?
it was the study of seismic refraction and seismic reflection that enabled scientists to plot the three
main zones of the earth
the crust
othe outer layer of rock, which forms a thin skin on earth’s surface
oit is thinner beneath the oceans than beneath the continents
oseismic waves travel faster in oceanic crust than in continental crust
othe two types of crust are made up of different kinds of rock
oseismic P waves travel through oceanic crust at about 7 km per second, which is also the
speed at which they travel through basalt and gabbro
othe upper part of the oceanic crust is basalt, and the lower part is gabbro
oseismic P waves travel more slowly through continental crust
ocontinental crust is often called granitic
othe continental crust is highly variable and complex, consisting of a crystalline basement
composed of granite, other plutonic rocks, gneiss, and schists, all capped by a layer of
sedimentary rocks
ofelsic (rocks high in feldspar and silicon) is used for continental crust
omafic (rocks high in magnesium and iron) is used for oceanic crust
oseismic waves show that the crust is thickest under geologically young mountain ranges
othe continental crust is also dense than the oceanic crust
othe boundary that separates the crust from the mantle is called the Mohorovicic
discontinuity
othe mantle lies closer to the earth’s surface beneath the ocean than it does beneath
continents
the mantle
omade of solid rock
obecause P waves travel at about 8 km per second in the upper mantle, it appears that the
mantle is a different type of rock from either oceanic crust or continental crust
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Description
Chapter 4 The Earths Interior the earths crust is a thin skin of rock earth is divided into three major layers o the crust o the mantle o the core seismic reflection and refraction suggest that the continents are largely igneous and metamorphic rock, such as granite and gneiss, overlain by a veneer of sedimentary rocks geophysics the application of physical laws and principles to a study of the earth seismic reflection the return of some of the energy of seismic waves to the earths surface after the waves bounce off a rock boundary o these reflected waves are recorded on a seismogram, which shows the amount of time the waves took to travel down to the boundary, reflect off it, and return to the surface seismic refraction the bending of seismic waves as they pass from one material to another o as a seismic wave strikes a rock boundary, much of the energy of the wave passes across the boundary o as the wave crosses from one rock layer to another, it changes direction occurs only if the velocity of seismic waves is different in each layer What is Inside the Earth? it was the study of seismic refraction and seismic reflection that enabled scientists to plot the three main zones of the earth the crust o the outer layer of rock, which forms a thin skin on earths surface o it is thinner beneath the oceans than beneath the continents o seismic waves travel faster in oceanic crust than in continental crust o the two types of crust are made up of different kinds of rock o seismic P waves travel through oceanic crust at about 7 km per second, which is also the speed at which they travel through basalt and gabbro o the upper part of the oceanic crust is basalt, and the lower part is gabbro o seismic P waves travel more slowly through continental crust o continental crust is often called granitic o the continental crust is highly variable and complex, consisting of a crystalline basement composed of granite, other plutonic rocks, gneiss, and schists, all capped by a layer of sedimentary rocks o felsic (rocks high in feldspar and silicon) is used for continental crust o mafic (rocks high in magnesium and iron) is used for oceanic crust o seismic waves show that the crust is thickest under geologically young mountain ranges o the continental crust is also dense than the oceanic crust o the boundary that separates the crust from the mantle is called the Mohorovicic discontinuity o the mantle lies closer to the earths surface beneath the ocean than it does beneath continents the mantle o made of solid rock o because P waves travel at about 8 km per second in the upper mantle, it appears that the mantle is a different type of rock from either oceanic crust or continental crust www.notesolution.com
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