Textbook Notes (381,015)
CA (168,316)
UTSC (19,303)
EESA06H3 (240)
Nick Eyles (207)
Chapter 1

EESA06 Chapter 1 Notes

3 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA06H3
Professor
Nick Eyles

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Introduction to Physical Geology and the Environment
What is Geology?
derived from Greek words geo and logos, meaning “the study of the Earth
this discipline came into being in the late eighteenth century
the first known geologic map was published in England in 1815 by William Smith
ohe is referred to as “the father of English geology”
in North America, geological mapping began in the mid-19th century
Sir William Logan was the first to describe the geology of Canada
What Is Plate Tectonics?
the plate tectonics theory considers the outermost rigid shell of the earth to be divided into
a number of plates that are in motion relative to one another
most geologic activity occurs at plate boundaries
the movement of continents on the earths surface was first suggested by Alfred Wegener
ohe recognized that todays continents had been clustered together in a large land
mass but had then moved apart he called this pangea
ohe could not explain how it had happened, that is why his theory was rejected
plate tectonics has operated for at least 3.5 billion years
oin this time, new plates have been formed and the older ones have been destroyed
by subduction
the process where the sea floor slides beneath a continent or island arc
geochemists study the chemistry of rocks or minerals
petrologists study the make up of rocks and how they form
What is the Scientific Method?
a process by which scientists first identify a problem, they then select a methodology to
collect data in order to help solve the problem. They then analyze and interpret the
information, and come up with a solution. Using data that is accurate, they form a
hypothesis
The Earth
the earth is very old and unique within the solar system in having oceans, an atmosphere,
and life
internal processes driven by the earths heat interact at the surface with external processes
driven by solar power to create complex and ever changing landscapes and geographies
The Origin of the Solar System
the universe was formed by the clumping together of gas and debris in the aftermath of the
big bang that occurred some 15 billion years ago
the solar system consists of the sun and the nine planets and space debris that orbit the
sun
it was created from a could of hydrogen and helium gas and dust particles called nebula
othis cloud of gas and dust began to rotate and contract, creating a core surrounded
by a flattened disc
othe core collapsed to the point where nuclear fusion began, and the sun was formed
sometime fewer than 5 billion years ago
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Description
Introduction to Physical Geology and the Environment What is Geology? derived from Greek words geo and logos, meaning the study of the Earth this discipline came into being in the late eighteenth century the first known geologic map was published in England in 1815 by William Smith o he is referred to as the father of English geology in North America, geological mapping began in the mid-19 century Sir William Logan was the first to describe the geology of Canada What Is Plate Tectonics? the plate tectonics theory considers the outermost rigid shell of the earth to be divided into a number of plates that are in motion relative to one another most geologic activity occurs at plate boundaries the movement of continents on the earths surface was first suggested by Alfred Wegener o he recognized that todays continents had been clustered together in a large land mass but had then moved apart he called this pangea o he could not explain how it had happened, that is why his theory was rejected plate tectonics has operated for at least 3.5 billion years o in this time, new plates have been formed and the older ones have been destroyed by subduction the process where the sea floor slides beneath a continent or island arc geochemists study the chemistry of
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