EESA06H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Cosmic Ray, Magnetometer, Paleomagnetism

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12 Aug 2016
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Ch.4 – The Earth’s Interior
-Deep parts of earth studied indirectly
Geophysics: application of physical laws and principles to a study of the Earth
-Study of seismic waves and Earth’s magnetic field, gravity, and heat
Seismic Reflection: return of some of the energy of seismic waves to the Earth’s
surface after the waves bounce off a rock boundary
-Important for studying the interior
-Reflected waves recorded on seismogram
-Shows amount of time waves took to travel to the boundary, reflect and return to
surface
-Used to calculate depth of boundary
Seismic Refraction: bending of seismic waves as they pass from one material to
another
-Similar to the way that light waves bend when they pass through the lenses of
eyeglasses
-Much of seismic wave energy passes across the boundary
-Changes direction as crosses from one rock layer to another
-Occurs only if the velocity of seismic waves is different in each layer
-Generally true if the rock layers differ in density or strength
-Rock boundary not necessary for refraction
-Increasing pressure with depth tends to increase velocity
Crust: outer layer of rock, which forms a thin skin on Earth’s surface
Mantle: thick shell of rock that separates the crust above from the core below
Core: central zone of Earth
-Probably metallic and source of Earth’s magnetic field
-Crust is thinner beneath the ocean then beneath the continents
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