EESA06H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Divergent Boundary, Subsidence, Subduction

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12 Aug 2016
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Ch.3 – Earthquakes
Earthquake: a trembling or shaking of the ground caused by the sudden release of
energy stored in the rocks beneath Earth’s surface
-Forces in the earth may add stress on the rock
-May bend or change in shape (strain)
-Rocks will eventually break from strain
-Will send out energy waves throughout the earth
Seismic Waves: the waves of energy produced by an earthquake
-Cause of ground shaking
-May move one rock past another
-Fault break between rock masses
Elastic Rebound Theory: the sudden release of progressively stored elastic strain
energy in rocks, causing movement along a fault
-Tectonic forces deep seated internal forces
-Act on rock for many decades
-First bend, lift or stretch
-Energy build up and rock breaks causing and earthquake
-Movements of rocks along fault can be horizontal, vertical or both
-Limit to depth where faults can occur due to less brittle rocks
-Most earthquakes associated with movement on faults
Focus (Hypocentre): point within the Earth where seismic waves first originate
-Point of initial breakage and movement on a fault
-Rupture begins at focus and spreads along fault plane
Epicentre: point on the Earth’s surface directly above the focus
-Two types of seismic waves
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