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UTSC (19,206)
EESA09H3 (9)
Chapter

LECTURE 2: GLOBAL WIND CIRCULATION

6 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA09H3
Professor
Tanzina Mohsin

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EESA09H 2010-09-23
LECTURE 2: GLOBAL WIND CIRCULATION
Mesospehere is very unstable
WHAT IS WIND?
Pressure gradient force: caused by the differences in pressure b/w high pressure systems & low
pressure systems
Isobar = line of constant pressure
The circles represent isobars
oIf the distance b/w the isobars is less, the pressure gradient has a STRONGER pull
oIf the distance b/w the isobars is more, the pressure gradient has a WEAKER pull
The Coriolis force:
oBends right in the Northern Hemisphere
oBends left in the Southern Hemisphere
oCannot be seen, cannot be felt fictitious force; (i.e. can be felt by a high-speed, high-force
rocket)
oInvented by George Hadley
oZero at the equator
oRelated to distance from equator; acts at right angle to the wind affecting the direction
Pressure Gradient Force (PGF) is always directed from high to low
Steep PG (isobars that are close together) indicate strong PGF and high winds
When the wind starts to blow, the Coriolis force causes it to bend to the right in N.H., left in the S.H.
www.notesolution.com
EESA09H 2010-09-23
Balance between PGF & Coriolis = Geostrophic wind
oUsually found 1km or so above the Earths surface; 0km – 1km has friction against the wind (i.e.
trees, buildings, etc.)
oHigh Pressure systems: air moves clockwise (away from centre) divergence”
oLow Pressure systems: air moves counter-clockwise (towards the centre) “convergence”
GLOBAL CIRCULATION
Three broad categories of atmospheric circulation:
oGlobal: 10,000’s of lm
oSynoptic: 100s to 1000s of km
oSmall Scales: < 100 km
Observation: There is more energy released in the Polar Regions than is received from the sun. (opp. for
equatorial region) atmospheric circulation
One Cell Theory: Air rises at equator, moving poleward, then sinks at the pole; the Hadley” cell named
after George Hadley
Sensible heat: heat you can feel
Latent heart: stored as water vapour absorbed as water evaporate released as water condenses
Energy transportation: energy is transported as sensible and latent heat; latent occurs when moist eq. air
moves poleward, cools, condenses, and releases latent heat
One Cell Theory does not consider rotation, tilt or continentality accurately
oRotation introduces the Coriolis effect
www.notesolution.com

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Description
EESA09H 2010-09-23 LECTURE 2: GLOBAL WIND CIRCULATION Mesospehere is very unstable WHAT IS WIND? Pressure gradient force: caused by the differences in pressure bw high pressure systems & low pressure systems Isobar = line of constant pressure The circles represent isobars o If the distance bw the isobars is less, the pressure gradient has a STRONGER pull o If the distance bw the isobars is more, the pressure gradient has a WEAKER pull The Coriolis force: o Bends right in the Northern Hemisphere o Bends left in the Southern Hemisphere o Cannot be seen, cannot be felt fictitious force; (i.e. can be felt by a high-speed, high-force rocket) o Invented by George Hadley o Zero at the equator o Related to distance from equator; acts at right angle to the wind affecting the direction Pressure Gradient Force (PGF) is always directed from high to low Steep PG (isobars that are close together) indicate strong PGF and high winds When the wind starts to blow, the Coriolis force causes it to bend to the right in N.H., left in the S.H. www.notesolution.com
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