America and eastern europe due to uncontrolled industrial expansion, increasing motor vehicle numbers & congestion & pollution caused by fuels used for cooking & heating: there is a relationship b/w air pollution and wealth. Specific air pollutants associated w/ adverse respiratory effects. Bronchoconstriction, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) Asphyxia leading to heart and nervous system damage, death. Auto emissions, fossil fuel power plants, oil refineries. Sulphur dioxide is a clear highly water-soluble gas so it is effectively absorbed by the mucous membranes of the upper airways w/ a much small proportion reaching the lung. Smog= smoke + fog (visible cloudy combo of the two) o. Bronchoconstriction can also be due to an accumulation of thick mucus. o. It"s removed in the upper airways during rest (b/c it"s highly water soluble) but exercising will increase so2 in the lower airways. Particulate air pollution closely related to s02 and aerosols.