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Chapter All

EESA10H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter All: Cichlid, Gram-Positive Bacteria, Gallium Arsenide

Environmental Science
Course Code
Jovan Stefanovic

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Life Support: The Environment and Human Health
Chapter 1: Environment, Health, and Risk
-Improved water, food, sanitation = improved nutrition, cleaner fuels
-We have many global problems
oGlobal warming, population growth, habitat destruction, resource depletion
The Environmental Crisis
-Human beings are changing the earth’s atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere
oBetween 1/3rd and 1/2 of earths surface was changed by humans
oCarbon dioxide levels increased 30% since industrial revolution
oAtmospheric nitrogen mostly caused by humanity and not by natural terrestrial
oHealth reproductions of amphibians are damaged by ultraviolet light
oThe declining of various amphibians and animals should be a clear indication of
environmental threats to human health
-Today’s environmental degradation is rapidly an unprecedented global crisis
oCaused by population growth and industrialization
-In the past 100 years...
oManufacturing increased
oUse of fossil fuels increased
oNumber of automobiles
oProduction of synthetic chemicals
-In 150 years...
oWe have 30% concentration of carbon dioxide
oOzone destroying chlorofluorocarbons
-Human made emissions have led us to acid rain
Human and Ecosystem Health

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Life Support: The Environment and Human Health
-Biologists and ecologists have an idea where the human health reflects the health of a
complex ecosystem
-Some believe humans dominate nature
-Some believe that the harmful things humans do to the environment can undo itself with
the help of technology
-We avoid talking about the global change we are experiencing because it may be too
frightening or overwhelming
-Some believe we are experiencing global warming’s effects as we speak
-Science has proven that the earth is warming, and GHG are part of the cause
-Political leadership have begun to seek solutions to the global issues of climate change
Health and the Environment
-New health effects are arising and could possibly be directly from climate change or
oPrevalence of malaria has increased worldwide, but no link to climate change was
oFunding the science to see whether certain health effects are caused by climate
change can be quite costly
-Environmental Degradation
oImbalance between population and resources
oIncreases cost and development
oExtends prolonged poverty
-Some poor people are forced out of their lands to country sides where they suffer from
natural causes such as droughts and floods.
-Serious environmental problems are often unknown or unrecognized
-Change in natural systems may be sudden and nonlinear
-Medical waste incineration is a major source of dioxin and mercury released into the
Page 10 – 12
Physicians and Public Health Professionals

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Life Support: The Environment and Human Health
-Physicians need to look at a number of things when a patient exposed to toxic exposure...
oNature/duration of patients exposure
oDegree of potential health threat it poses
oExtent of the risk to the patient/community
oEven though these skills are important, many medical students lack in studying
-We need to change our way of thinking toward creating health, not curing disease
-We need to learn the connections between health and environment
-How can we promote health?
oStop further environmental degradation, by...
Change policies that control pollution
Prevent generation of pollution and environmental damage in the first
oChange relationship between developed and developing countries, by...
New strategies for transferring technologies while minimizing the
destruction of resources and the generation of pollutants
oPromoting the education of environment and promotion of health
No matter what occupation, you must understand the environmental issues
in relation to health and the quality of life
Chapter 2: Urban and Transboundary Air Pollution
-Recognition of the relationship between exposure to air pollutants and respiratory illness
dates back to the sixteenth century and description of respiratory disease in miners
-Much of what we currently understand about environmental lung disease derives from the
study of exposed workers since the Industrial Revolution
-Later in the industrial nations of Europe and North America, whole communities were
engulfed in air pollutants, resulting in serious illness and death among individuals with
cardiopulmonary disease
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