Textbook Notes (378,371)
CA (167,127)
UTSC (19,207)
EESA10H3 (134)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2-Life Support Book

5 Pages
187 Views

Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA10H3
Professor
Jovan Stefanovic

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Chapter 2: Urban and Transboundary Air Pollutions
¾ Recognition of the relationship between non-workplace (i.e., community) air pollution and
respiratory disease dates back to the first use of coal as a combustion source in the fourteenth
century.
¾ Later, in the industrial nations of Europe and North America, whole communities were engulfed
in air pollutants, resulting in serious illness and death among individuals with cardiopulmonary
disease.
¾ These episodes occurred in the Meuse Valley of Belgium in 1930; in Donora, Pennsylvania, in
1948; and in London in 1952.
¾ These air pollution emergencies were caused by air stagnation, which resulted in greatly
increased concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, especially sulfur dioxide and suspended
particulates. The worst episode occurred in London.
¾ As a result of these epidemics, scientists and governments paid increased attention to the
health effects of air pollution.
¾ This crisis has several aspects. First, since the atmosphere is dynamic and always changing,
contaminants are transported (sometimes over thousands of miles), diluted, precipitated, and
transformed. Air pollution, therefore, knows no boundaries or national borders.
¾ Second, the primary emissions of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, respirable
particulates, and metals are severely polluting cities and towns in Asia, Africa, Latin America,
and Eastern Europe.
¾ Many cities in developing nations and in Eastern Europe are experiencing uncontrolled
industrial expansion, increasing motor vehicle numbers and congestion, and pollution caused by
fuels used for cooking and heating.
¾ World Health Organization (WHO) confirms that this disparity between wealthier and poorer
nations persists.
¾ Third, in nations that have reduced the primary emissions from heavy industry, power plants,
and automobiles, new problems have arisen from pollution by newer industries and from air
pollution caused by secondary formation of acids and ozone.
¾ Finally, although this report is focused on the human health effects of air pollution, there are
also many other aspects of the problem. For example, damage to ecosystems and agriculture
from acid rain, damage to buildings and artwork, and reduced visibility are all attributable to air
pollution.
Defining Adverse Health Effects
¾ An adverse health effect is any effect that results in altered structure or impaired function or
that represents the beginning of a sequence of events leading to altered structure or function.
Specific Air Pollutants Associated with Adverse Respiratory Effects
www.notesolution.com
¾ Several major types of air pollution are currently recognized to cause adverse respiratory health
effects: sulfur oxides and acidic particulate complexes, photochemical oxidants, and a
miscellaneous category of pollutants arising from industrial sources.
¾ ^oîXí(}^W]v]o]}ooµvUZ]}µUvZ]]}Ç((X_~PXíôX
Sulfur Dioxide and Acidic Aerosols
¾ Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is produced by the combustion of sulfur contained in fossil fuel, such as coal
and crude oil. Therefore, the major sources of environmental pollution with sulfur dioxide are
electric power generating plants, oil refineries, and smelters.
¾ Some fuels, sucZ^}(_}oU]µooÇµo(µ-rich. Ex: China uses it a lot.
¾ Sulfur dioxide is a clear, highly water-soluble gas, so it is effectively absorbed by the mucous
membranes of the upper airways, with a much smaller proportion reaching the distal regions of
the lung.
¾ The sulfur dioxide released into the atmosphere does not remain gaseous. It undergoes
chemical reaction with water, metals, and other pollutants to form aerosols.
¾ These particulate aerosols vary in composition from area to area, but the most common
pollutants resulting from this atmospheric reaction are sulfuric acid, metallic acid, and
ammonium sulfates.
¾ Sulfur dioxide, therefore, together with other products of fossil-fuel combustion forms the
heavy urban pollution that typified old London, many cities in developing nations today that
mainly burn coal.
¾ In addition to this smog t a descriptive term generically referring to the visibly cloudy
combination of smoke and fog t an acidic aerosol is formed that has been shown to induce
asthmatic responses in both adults and children.
¾ In a Harvard study: two measures of air acidity showed significant effects. Higher particle acidity
(nmol/m3) was significantly associate d with an increased risk of bronchitis, while higher levels of
gaseous acids were significantly associated with wheeze attacks, chronic wheezing, and any
asthmatic symptoms.
¾ ]]}}oµo]v^]]vU_ÁZ]ZuÇZvµ]o](X
¾ Because (SO2) is highly water soluble, nearly all of the inspired (SO2) gas is removed in the upper
airways during rest. Exertion (work and exercising) will increase the fraction of (SO2) gas to the
lower airways and therefore help to precipitate bronchocontriction.
¾ ^oîXî(}^hX^Xv]}vo]µo]Çv(}]Æ]]}ooµvX_ (pg. 21).
¾ In addition to the acute bronchoconstrictive effects of sulfur dioxide, there is epidemiologic
evidence for chronic airway obstruction in persons exposed to elevated levels of (SO2).
Particulates
¾ Particulate air pollution is closely related to (SO2) and aerosols. The term usually refers to
particles suspended in the air after various forms of combustion or other industrial activity.
¾ In the epidemics noted earlier, the air pollution was characterized by high levels of particulates,
sulfur dioxide, and moisture.
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 2: Urban and Transboundary Air Pollutions Recognition of the relationship between non-workplace (i.e., community) air pollution and respiratory disease dates back to the first use of coal as a combustion source in the fourteenth century. Later, in the industrial nations of Europe and North America, whole communities were engulfed in air pollutants, resulting in serious illness and death among individuals with cardiopulmonary disease. These episodes occurred in the Meuse Valley of Belgium in 1930; in Donora, Pennsylvania, in 1948; and in London in 1952. These air pollution emergencies were caused by air stagnation, which resulted in greatly increased concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, especially sulfur dioxide and suspended particulates. The worst episode occurred in London. As a result of these epidemics, scientists and governments paid increased attention to the health effects of air pollution. This crisis has several aspects. First, since the atmosphere is dynamic and always changing, contaminants are transported (sometimes over thousands of miles), diluted, precipitated, and transformed. Air pollution, therefore, knows no boundaries or national borders. Second, the primary emissions of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, respirable particulates, and metals are severely polluting cities and towns in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. Many cities in developing nations and in Eastern Europe are experiencing uncontrolled industrial expansion, increasing motor vehicle numbers and congestion, and pollution caused by fuels used for cooking and heating. World Health Organization (WHO) confirms that this disparity between wealthier and poorer nations persists. Third, in nations that have reduced the primary emissions from heavy industry, power plants, and automobiles, new problems have arisen from pollution by newer industries and from air pollution caused by secondary formation of acids and ozone. Finally, although this report is focused on the human health effects of air pollution, there are also many other aspects of the problem. For example, damage to ecosystems and agriculture from acid rain, damage to buildings and artwork, and reduced visibility are all attributable to air pollution. Defining Adverse Health Effects An adverse health effect is any effect that results in altered structure or impaired function or that represents the beginning of a sequence of events leading to altered structure or function. Specific Air Pollutants Associated with Adverse Respiratory Effects www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit