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EESA11H3 (7)
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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Book notes

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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA11H3
Professor
prof.d

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Understanding Pollution : Chapter 1
Human are massively changing the earth
Human impacts:
½ of earths land has been transformed
Increase in greenhouse
Less freshwater
Nitrogen fixation
Introduction of new species.
Extinction of bird species
Exploitation of fisheries
natures way of protecting
What are natures services?
Type Examples
Provisioning Food (plants and animals), water, fuel (such as wood and dung)
Regulating Climate (including temperature and precipitation), water puri_cation and waste
treatment,
pollination, preventing soil erosion (as with grasses and trees), storm protection (as with
mangroves and coral reefs)
Supporting Services necessary to produce other ecosystem services including soil formation,
nutrient cycling,
production of oxygen (from photosynthesis)
Cultural Spiritual values,
Preventing floods
China-> yangatze river had a flood because of deforestation so they banned clear
cutting.
Global climate change
Climate change is caused by increase in CO2.
Urban trees:
20 U.S.A-> cities had 30% decline in tree cover over 3 decades.
www.notesolution.com
Understanding Pollution : Chapter 1
Section 3)
Pollution
Pollutant: any substance introduced uinto the environment that adversely affects the
usefulness of a resource.
Table 1.2 Terms used to describe pollutant concentration
ppm = parts per milliona
ppb = parts per billion (one thousand times smaller than ppm)
ppt = parts per trillion (1 million times smaller than ppm)
ppq = parts per quadrillion (1 billion times smaller than ppm)
To grasp these concentrations, consider the following:
1 ppm = 1 pound contaminant in 500 tons (1 million pounds)
1 ppb = 1 pound of contaminant in 500 000 tons
1 ppt = 1 pound of contaminant in 500 000 000 tons
1 ppq = 1 pound of contaminant in 500 000 000 000 tons.
For a different perspective, think about periods of time:
1 ppm is equivalent to 1 second in 11.6 days
1 ppb is equivalent to 1 second in 32 years
1 ppt is equivalent to 1 second in 32 000 years
1 ppq is equivalent to 1 second in 32 000 000 years.
a ppm, ppb, etc. refer to parts by weight in soil, water, or food. In air, they refer to parts per volume
Why does pollution happen?
It happens because no process is completely effective.
Michael Braungart observe, “Pollution is a symbol of
`design failure.”
What substances pollute?
Anything can be a pollutant:
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Understanding Pollution : Chapter 1 Human are massively changing the earth Human impacts: of earths land has been transformed Increase in greenhouse Less freshwater Nitrogen fixation Introduction of new species. Extinction of bird species Exploitation of fisheries natures way of protecting What are natures services? Type Examples Provisioning Food (plants and animals), water, fuel (such as wood and dung) Regulating Climate (including temperature and precipitation), water puri_cation and waste treatment, pollination, preventing soil erosion (as with grasses and trees), storm protection (as with mangroves and coral reefs) Supporting Services necessary to produce other ecosystem services including soil formation, nutrient cycling, production of oxygen (from photosynthesis) Cultural Spiritual values, Preventing floods China-> yangatze river had a flood because of deforestation so they banned clear cutting. Global climate change Climate change is caused by increase in CO2. Urban trees: 20 U.S.A-> cities had 30% decline in tree cover over 3 decades. www.notesolution.com
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