Chapter 9 ▯ Intelligence, Aptitude, and Cognitive Abilities
Intelligence – Ability to think, understand, reason, and adapt to overcome obstacles.
▯ Achievement and Aptitude
Tests mental ability
1) Achievement Test
Measure knowledge and thinking skills
Ex. Test and quizzes
2) Aptitude Tests
Designed to measure an individuals potential to preform in a range of tasks.
Ex. College entrance exams such as SAT
Achievement test measure current abilities and aptitude predict future performance.
Constructing and Evaluating Tests
Constructing a questionnaire or test falls under the branch of psychology called
The measurement of psychological traits and abilities
(personality, attitudes, intelligence).
Important concepts in psychometrics are:
• Validity – degree to which a test measures what’s its intended to.
• Reliability – produces constant results
testretest reliability, get same results when test is done
▯ Standardization and Norms
Standardized Test – A set of questions or problems are administered and scored in a uniform
way across a large number of individuals.
Allows for comparison among individuals
Norms – Statistic that allows individuals to be evaluated relative to a standard score.
Percentile Rank – The percentage of scores below a certain point.
Ex. 84 percentile means 84% are below a certain score. ▯ The StanfordBinet Test
An achievement test to measure a childs performance relative to other children of the same age.
New law required that all children must attend school, all of the same age not of the same
Mental Age – The average test score for a specific chronological age.
Children with lower mental ages than their chronological age would require more help in school to
get caught up.
StanfordBinet Test – Test intended to measure
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – Mental age/
chronological age x 100.
IQ changed, test was given a average of 100 and a
standard deviation of 16, therefore a persons IQ was
simply their score on the test.
▯ The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) – most commonly used intelligence test used
on adults and children.
Provides a single IQ score, Full Scale IQ, and breaks intelligence in two.
1) General Ability Index (GAI) – Comprehension and reasoning.
2) Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) – Working memory and processing speed
▯ Raven’s Progressive Matrices
Also known as Raven’s Matrices.
Is an intelligence test that emphasizes problems that are not intended to be bound to a particular
language or culture.
Problems do not require knowledge of a language or culture to complete, are universal.
Picture and image problems.
▯ Measuring Perception and Memory
Sir Francis Galton thought that families who consisted of mostly intelligent people were
“genetically gifted” and a result of good breeding.
First to use Anthropometrics – a method of measuring physical and mental variations.
Testing showed that family does not correlate to intelligence. Psychologists believe that working memory and intelligence are one in the same.
Debate over it.
Autism impairs ability to develop social and emotional connections with people, even parents.
▯ Intelligence as a General Ability
Charles Spearman developed a technique to calculate the correlations among multiple
measures of mental ability.
Factor Analysis – A statistical technique that reveals similarities among a wide variety of items.
Reading, comprehension, and verbal reasoning overlap to form “ Lanuage ability”.
General Intelligence (g) Hypothesizes by Spearman
A concept that intelligence is a basic trait comprising the ability
to learn, reason, and solve problems regardless of their nature.
Intelligence appears to be divided into at least 3 categories: