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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Poetic Designs

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Chap 1  a poet’s choice of meter is deliberate and so poets places his work in relation to all the rest of English poetry  Ex: dactylic hexameter has never been common in English, but poet using it, can be placing his work in relation to epics of Virgil and Homer  ballad stanza always seems folksy  formal inventions of poetry have had origins in poet’s desire to shed the clichés of present or associations of the past  **poet’s choice of meter establishes a “contract with the reader”, assuring them that every syllable in the poem has been duly weighed and measured, that the language has been written with full attention not only to its content but expression in language  **meter says that a poem must be heard as poem, the presence of a meter sets the language or distinct from ordinary speech  strong-lined poetry: (of whatever period) the poetic rhythms create meaning through intricacies of their ply with the material frame  **according to accented syllables suggest slow, emphatic, or the difficult  **grouping of unaccented syllables suggest speed, lightness, and ease  sudden rhythmic reversal of ten accompanies a surprise ( a turn of thought), a new tone of voice, an intensification  iambic pentameter has foots: a basic unit of rhythm within a line, a kind of interchangeable rhythmic module  6 kinds of material feet in English, four of which serve as metrical bases: -iamb (unstressed and stressed) -trochee (stressed and unstressed) -anapest (unstressed, unstressed, and stressed) -dactyl (stressed, unstressed, unstressed)  two others serve only as rhythmic variations within a line: -spondee (stressed, stressed) -pyrrhic ( unstressed, unstressed)  lines can be different lengths, from one foot to eight (i.e. monometer, diameter, etc.)  iambic line consists of 5 iambs, that is five iambic feet only one of these feet can be replaced by a foot of any other kind without altering meter of the poem called metrical substitution **substitution is much more controlled, some feet (especially trochaic) act as substitutions, while others like dactylic rarely ever appear every line of poetry has several plausible correct scansions wrong scansions occur for two reasons: first the marking is impossible to hear and secondly occur when the marking is untrue to the metrical system end-stopped: line stops at the end enjambment: the line pushes ahead to the next caesura: the line pauses in the middle one-syllable ending (also one-syllable rhyme) most of the lines in iambic pentameter end on the accented syllable; but poets have the option of adding one extra accented syllable at the end of each line a
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