Website Notes (mapping).docx

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Majorie Rubright

Website: Mapping early modern worlds  America when “discovered” was personified as a female  Maps and sea charts b/cming more and more accurate  Western Europe, familiarity with mapping as a science and metaphor, trace dev in cartography, idea of mapping used to make sense of explorations into other outer and inner worlds  Orbis Terrarum: The Circle of the Earth o Maps means of communication o Medieval world maps = 3 continents or climatic zones based on biblical narrative o Shape of T for cross, and T-in-O emblem of divine authority was incorporated into the orb carried by temporal monarchs as a symbol of power  The Geography of Claudius Ptolemy o Stated earth was spherical, demonstrated geographical coordinate system, recognized pobs of depicting spherical earth on flat surface, his work was th forgotten until 14 C o Early 16 C, edition of Ptolemy  new discoveries, distinction b/w ancient and modern geography o New maps gave renaissance readers actual size of the world and pics of lands prev unknown  Geography-Chorography-Cartography o Ptolem’s 1 sentence define geo as a picture of the whole part of the known world o His distinction b/w geo and chorography made so much sense, adapted by renaissance writers o Analogy: geo is the entire head, chorography indiv features; geo concerned with mapping countries, chorography mapping descp of countries, cities, o/ small divisions o Cartography: science of drawing maps/ charts  Theatrum Orbis Terrarum: Theatres of the whole world o Abraham Ortelius, cartographer  father of atlas, 1 to publish modern atlas o His great work: theatrum orbis terrarum o Georgraphy: eye of history, theatre of the world o expanded and contracted the world, uncovering new insights, unknown proportion of the globe while condensing it into the space of a book that could fit on a table  Gerard Mercator’s Atlas st o 1 to use the word atlas o Mercator’s atlas based on legendary king of Libya who is supposed to have constructed the first terrestrial globe o Attempt to complete his atlas, but was completed by his son after his death (Rumold) in 1595  Mapping a Nation o Project to mapr a nation in 16 -17 C Eng o Queen Elizabeth backed Christopher saxton’s great atlas of 1579 o Elizabeth enthroned in Saxton’s atlas o Royal coat of arms placed on margins of maps giving rise to the nation as an entity independent of the monarch  Mapping the “Other” o Explorers enlarged the boundaries through travel, brought cuious obks back o Pictures of strange but real animals and plants and ppl replace mythical beasts  Portolans and Waggoner: Plotting a course at sea o Sailors making practical charts of coasts they sailed on o Used ompass, winds to determine direction o Recorded notable landmarks on portolan charts with pictorial counterparts o Lucas Janszoon Waghenaer published book summarizing all contemporary astronomical and mathematical knowledge necessary to position-finding along with traditional sailing directions o Standardized methods men sailed by  City and Road Maps o Georg Braun  1 atlas providing a collection of plans and views of cities from around the world o 6 volumes, over 500 maps with descriptive texts o John Ogilby  relationship b/w settlements along a linear road  1 issued in a large folio, later in pocket-book size  Counties, Baronies, Hundreds, and Manors: Marking the Boundaries th o Until 17 C, sea charts= most accurate maps o 16 c use of trigonometry to measure land distances reg practiced to produce local maps and plans  Mapping Beyond and Below: o Stretched boundaries of the known universe into the heavens o Invention of telescope in 1609  detailed maps of the moon o Invention of magnifying glasses and microscopes wander through world of tiny creatures o Inductive and deductive reasoning helped make scientific propositions about unseen phenomena  Imaginary Places o Mapping became a habit in early mod euro o Evident in various attempts to render imaginary places cartographically o Places range from moral geo of good and ebil to ideal communist state of sir Thomas more’s utopia o Compasses, maps, globes used b poets to enrich their imagery (ex: John Donne)  The secrets of Perspective o Florentine architects (Filippo Brunellesch and Leon Battista Albert) pioneered scientific linear perspective”  Enlargement of objs close at hand to size they seem from distance  Embodying the Map o Relationship b/w human body and world goes back to middle ages where microcosm (little body of man) though to replicate macrocosm (large world around him) o Early imgs of zodiac man map the planets, signs of the zodiac humours onto the human body o Leonardo da Vinci’s fam drawing  man measure of all things o Oretelius began peopling their maps with human figures from exotic lands o Historical and contemporary figures in their maps o Animating land itself, geography is humanly embodied  Mapping the Body o Human dissection began 300BC o Publication of Corporis Fabrica in 1543 allowed it to be considered scientifically modern o Earlier images of woodcut of male o Division of the flat fgure into sections of early zonal maps o Mapping of the ear, female reproductive system etc  intersection of body and world o Body an affinity with the complex design of the universe Website: Envisioning the world  Combination of print and cartography  shapes world we know today  Advances in science, navigation, trade, discovery that Earth was not the unmoving centre of all creation but rather is an orbiting planet  Copernican theory, heliocentric universe resolve matter of calendar reform  Through Galileo and Kepler, copernician scheme became increasingly apparent  This new model could be used to improve the freq, range, and speed of geographic surveys, and accuracy of maps  This dev carried commercial and military advantage for developing colonial empires  As transoceanic trade rivaled, then eclipsed, the commercial value of traditional agriculture, investment poured superseding the feudal political order that had dominated western Europe for 7 Centuries  Wendt Collection 2 general perspectives: o Focus on maps themselves (geographic forms, spatial systems) o External developments that shaped cartographic progress (historical and cultural shifts) Celestial maps: not possible to see more than 20 miles from any given coastline  Peaks of the world’s highest mountains extend this range by a few 100 miles  Looking up at a night sky and seeing objs which existed billions of years ago  View encompasses time and space , stars appear to revolve around us, their relationships to one another seem utterly fixed, across thousands of generations  Reliable indicator of direction  For cartographers, stars provided standard points of reference Northern and southern hemisphere:  Azimuthal equidistant showing distance from the centre on a constant scale  distance from any central point on a terrestrial map easily calculate BUT cost: extreme distortion of shape toward the edges  Celestial maps: only undistortable points have any substance  Imaginary figures: gods, beasts, useful objs that must conform to the flexible norms of a culture and memory  Cartographers can fill entire hemisphere with visually undistorted figures, the points they encompass maintain precise and measurable
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