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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Carl Mitchell

Chapter 5 Hypoxia: the condition of extremely low dissolved oxygen concentrations in a body of water Eutrophication: the process of nutrient enrichment, increased production of organic matter, and subsequent ecosystem degradation Cycles: shape the landscapes and guide the flow of key chemical elements and compounds that support life and regulate climate System: network of relationships among parts, elements, or components that interact withinfluence one another through the exchange of energy, matter, or information Open systems: systems that receive inputs of energy and matter and produce outputs of both Closed systems: systems that receive inputs and produce outputs of energy but not matter N Energy inputs to Earth = solar radiation, heat released by geothermal activity, organismal metabolism, human activities N Informational inputs = visual, olfactory (chemical), magnetic, thermal signs N Matter inputs = when chemicalsphysical material move along systems Feedback loop: a systems output serving as an input to that system Negative feedback loop: output that results from a system moving in one direction acts as input that moves the system in another direction Positive feedback loop: drives a system to one extreme rare in nature but common in natural systems altered by human impact Dynamic equilibrium: when processes within a system move in opposing directions at equivalent rates so their effects balance out Homeostasis: a system to maintain constant or stable internal conditions Resistance = strength of the systems tendency to remain constant Resilience = measure of how readily the system will return to its original state after disrupted Steady state: a state of dynamic equilibrium or balance in which there is no net change in the system (homeostatis) Emergent properties: characteristics not evident in the components alone Lithosphere: rock and sediment, planets uppermost layers N Rocks and minerals rock cycle N Igneous (magma lava cools into igneous) cooling below surface = intrusive (e.g. granite), above = extrusive (e.g. basalt) N Sedimentary (sediments layers + weight and pressure lithification (e.g. limestone)) N Metamorphic (heat + pressure (e.g. marble)) Plate tectonics: a process that underlies earthquakes and volcanoes determining the geography of Earths surface Crust floating on top of mantle surrounding the core of iron Earths internal heat drives convection currents that flow in loops in mantle (up, warms; down, cools) Movement of plate tectonics influence climate & lifes evolution Divergent plate boundaries: magma surging upward to the surface dividespushes plates apart Transform plate boundary: two plates grinding, creating friction earthquakes Convergent plate boundaries: 1. Plate of crust may slide beneath another (subduction) 2. two colliding plates may slowly lift material from both plates Atmosphere: air surrounding our planet
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