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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Carl Mitchell

Chapter 16 - 81% of worlds energy comes from oil, coal, and natural gas - Powers 23 of worlds electricity generation - conventional alternatives to fossil fuels less environmental impact - Fuel and biomass = 10.0% of worlds energy; nuclear power = 6.3%; hydropower = 2.2% - Nuclear & hydropower each accounts for 16 of worlds electricity generation Hydropower: uses the kinetic energy of moving water to turn turbines and generate electricity - Storage: keeping immense amounts of water stored behind the dam - Reservoir water passes through a dam turns blades of turbines generator generates electricity transmitted to electric grid by transmission lines - Run-of-river: generates electricity without disrupting the flow of river water - sacrifices the reliability of water flow across seasons minimizes the impacts of large dams - divert a portion of a rivers flow through a pipechannel powerhouse back to river - 2.2% of worlds energy supply, 16.0% of the worlds electricity production - For flood control and irrigation - Renewable as long as precipitation falls from the sky and fills riversreservoirs - Cleanliness no carbon compounds are burned in the production of hydropower no CO2 or other pollutants are emitted into the atmosphere - Fossil fuels are used in constructing and maintaining dams - EROI = ~10:1 Negative impacts - Destroys habitat for wildlife, natural flooding cycles of rivers are disrupted, sediments become trapped
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