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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Sratigraphy Early ideas on stratigraphy How laters get bent and broken Relative age of rock Absolute age of rock The geolicescale: 4.56 billion today Ancient Greeks recognized fossils embedded in rocks now on tops of mountains How did they get there? Strata "Diluvium"(meaning 'of flood') • Strict biblical interpretation of earth's history (rocks of landscapes result from Noah's Flood). • More than one flood recognized (new life created each time so each layer contains different life forms) Archbiship Ussher (1571-1656) • "Earth formed at 9am on October 26th 4004 B.C" • Based on counting generations in the bible Georgius Agrcola 1494-1555 • "Father of mining geology" • Recognizes that fossils are remains of marine organisms in 1531 Nicolase Steno 1631-86: "Mountains can be raised and lowered, land can be conveyed from one place to another" James Hutton 1726-97 1. Recognized "unconformities" within layers of rocks and the igneous origin of granite 2. Proposed concept of "uniformitarianism" (the present is the key to the past) 3. Came into conflict with Abram Werner and "diluvialism" and "catastrophism" • Facies: means "appearance of" • Geologists speak of rock facies • unconformative gaps- a groups of rocks formed at the same time and went through processes Hutton's unconformity at siccar point in scotland 1. Deposition of older strata (silurian) 2. Doformation of strata in mountain-building even 3. Erosion to produce surface of unformity 4. Deposition of younger stata (devonian) 5. Uplift, tilting erosion "the mind grows giddy gazing so far back into the abyss of time" John playfair, geologist (1747-1819): the concept of deep time) The Great unconformity at Marmora, Ontario -oldest mining town -Grenville mountains -peneplain -formation of mountin, erosion getting rid of them, formation of limestone on top -over 600million years old: Precambrian: 1Ga -proterozoic - youngest exo
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