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EESA06H3 (234)
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Chapter 3

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Environmental Science
Lisa Tutty

Chapter 3 Continental Drift: Wegener argued that the continents were once joined together but later drifted apart Supporting Evidence: A) Continents have similar rocks and geologic structures B) The correspondence of the fossils of plants and land animals on continents now several thousand kilometers apart and separated by wide oceans C) Ancient glaciers had once covered places that today are close to the equator, and much too warm to have major glaciers Why some geologists didn’t accept Wegner’s Hypothesis  They had not seen the Southern Hemisphere data  Wegener could not explain why or how the continents moved Occurrence of Earthquakes  Most earthquakes occur in discrete belts, like the one that runs along the western coasts of North and South America  Most earthquakes in the oceans occur along the winding crests of mid-ocean ridges  Few earthquakes occur in large areas of the seafloor  More earthquakes occur on narrow continental shelves compared to wider ones  Many earthquakes occur in ocean trenches and associated island arcs Occurrence of Volcanoes  Commonly occur in belts, like the one extending along the western coasts of North and South America  Some occur in the centers of oceans, like the ones near Iceland  Occur beneath the oceans  Some form in the middle of continents Earthquake & Volcanic Activity and the Earth’s Lithosphere  Earthquakes, volcanoes, and other processes that deform the crust and mantle are called tectonic activity or simply tectonics  Plate boundaries have tectonic activity because plates are moving relative to one another  Two plates can move away, toward, or sideways relative to one another, resulting in 3 types of plate boundaries: divergent, convergent, and transform Divergent Boundaries  Mid-ocean ridges are divergent plate boundaries where new oceanic lithosphere forms as two oceanic plates move apart  Many
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