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Canada (161,743)
EESA06H3 (234)
Lisa Tutty (13)
Chapter 5

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Environmental Science
Lisa Tutty

Natural Disasters Hazard – threatens human life and property; the process itself is not a hazard, rather, it becomes a hazard only when threatening human interests Risk: probable severity that a destructive event will occur multiplied by the event’s likely impact on people and property; risk thus integrates hazard and social vulnerability Disaster: an event that causes serious injury, event that causes serious injury, loss of life, and property damage over a limited time and within a specific geographic area Catastrophe = the same as disaster, except that it is more massive and affects a larger number of people and more infrastructure than disaster [ex. consequences far beyond the area that is directly affected require huge expenditures of time and money for recovery] Volcanic activity Volcanic explosion at the hot spot or MOR is not violent because they are shield volcanoes and they have basaltic magma. The violent explosions occur at the subduction zones (converging) because of felsic magma (thick and blocks gases – violent). Volcanic hazards – lava flows, tephra aka ash fall (this can block sunlight if ash is sent into the atmosphere and the plants die, people starve, etc). Climate change (volcanoes send greenhouse gases into the atmosphere which heats the earth; and they send aerosols which results in cooling of the planet), earthquakes happen, gaseous emissions Lahars can happen during an eruption or much later and they can be cold or hot and they are concentrated mud flows. Pyroclastic flows happen only during an eruption and they release very hot gases and they come roaring from the mountains. How do we monitor volcanoes? Seismic activity (monitor earthquake activity), gas output (change in type or amount of gas coming out), heat flow (if it getting a lot hotter, magma is closer), topography (checking for bulges, new magma coming out), mudflows/lahars, hydrology (check
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