EESA06 Textbook Notes.pdf

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Environmental Science
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Nick Eyles

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EESA06 Textbook Notes Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Geology and the EnvironmentWhat is Geology Geologythe study of earth Moving Continents 11 William SmithFather of English Geology first to publish a geological map12 William Loganfirst to systematically describe the geology of Canada Candian Crosssectiona hypothetical vertical slice thru the land 13 Alfred Wegenertheory of continental drift in 1912 The Origin of Continents and Oceans Pangeacontinents has previously been clustered together in a large land mass 14 J Tuzo Wilsonplate tectonics theory in the early 1970s Canadian Transform faultslargescale faults that offset the crust laterally but neither created nor destroyed material now recognized as a major plate boundary type Hot spotsactive volcanoes young volcanic islands stuck in the middle of the oceans Volcanic islands chains ex Hawaiian Islands resulted from a moving plate drifting over a stationary magma plume in the mantlesupport for plate tectonic theory Time and Geology Deep timevastly greater amounts of time more than hours years Midocean ridgea giant mountain range that lies under the ocean Earth is estimated to be at least 455 Ga years old What do Geoscientists Do 15 Exploration Geologistslooking for gold diamonds and other metals Geoscientistsexpand the scope and responsibilities of modern geologist into additional scientific fields Geochemistsworking in a ordered environment of the laboratory and use hightechnology equipment to analyze the chemistry of rocks or minerals Mineralogistsstudy minerals 16 Petrologistsstudy the makeup of rocks and how they form Geophysicistsusing hightech equipment in the field using boats planes or satellites to learn more of the nature of the physical conditions on or under the Earths surface Petroleumcoal geologistssearch for oil and gas and coal Seismologistsstudy how to measure and mitigate earthquake activity Paleontologiststudies the fossilized remains of ancient organismsGlacial Geologistsstudy landforms and sediments left behind by ice sheets glaciers Hydrogeologistsstudy and protect sediments that contain and transmit water 17 Environmental Geoscientistsfinding and managing drinking water dealing with a wide range of wastes ranging from radioactive waste to household municipal waste 18 Engineering Geologistswork with the challenges of engineering structures that form part of the human landscape landscape stability problems 19 Geomaticiancollect organize analyze and create images from any spatial and geographical data available in digital form What is the Scientific Method Scientific Methodthe process by which scientists first identify a problem then they select a methodology to collect data in order to help solve the problem then they analyze and interpret the information and come up with a hypothesis after several testform a theory Hypothesisa theoretical explanation where the geologist How did the Earth form Nebulaa cloud of gas and dust particles Bulbous coreflattened disccreated by gas and dust rotate and contract Sun created from a nuclear fusion Planetsdust in the outer disc condensed to form rocks and metals that combined to form large rounded planets and Planetismalsmuch smaller irregularly shaped planets Accretionthe process of building large bodies of matter thru collisions and gravitational attraction Terrestrial planets ex Mercury Venus Earth Marsform close to the sun small dense rocky Jovian planets ex Jupiter Saturn Uranus and Neptunelow density large further from sun What was the early earth likeDifferentiationprocess of zonation of different materials within a planet Heavier metals iron and nickel settle towards the center lighter metals silica and oxygen rise towards Earths surface 110 Meteoritessmall solid particles of rock metal and or iceorbiting the Sun 1 iron rare but look unique easily foundiron mixed with small amount of nickel 2stonyironironnickel alloy and silicate minerals in about equal parts 3stony meteorites most common look like earths rockssilicate minerals plagioclase olivine pyroxene and may contain small amount of ironnickel alloy 90 are Chondritescontain round silicate grains aka chondrules10 are Achondriteslack chondrulesCarbonaceous chondritescomposed mostly of serpentine or pyroxene and contain up to 5 organic materials believed to have same composition as the original material from which the solar system was formed Achondritessimilar to terrestrial rocks in composition basalt and texture igneous rocks Internal Structure of the earthCorecomposed of iron alloy ironnickel silicon Mantlecomposed of FeMg silicates form a rock called peridotite Outer crustcomposed of lighter rocks such as basalt and granite
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