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Chapter 1

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Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Chapter 1 Introduction to Planet EarthWhat is geology the word geology is derieved from greek meaningthe study of Earthfirst known map was created by ancient Egyptians over 3000 years agoin 1815 William Smith Father of English Geology published one of the earliest detailed geologic mapSir William Logan who in 1842 became the founding director of the Geo logical Survey of Canada was the first to systematically describe the geology of Canadathe everchanging nature of physical environments on planet Earth such as the positioning of the continents together with the role of extra terrestrial processes such as meteorite impacts are seen as having largely controlled the evolution of life formsIn Greater Depth11 William SmithMoving Continents In Greater Depth 12 Sir William LoganIn Greater Depth 13 Alfted WegnerThe movement of continents on the Earths surface was suggested early in the twentieth century by the German meteorologist Alfred Wegener o This ultimately allowed development of the plate tectonics theoryit was a Canadian geophysicist JTuzo Wilson box 14 who in the early 1970s was responsible for bringing together several of the key elements of what we now know as plate tec tonics theoryIn Greater Depth 14 JTuzo WilsonTime and Geology Rapidly to a geologist may mean that within a few million years the hill will be reduced nearly to a plainThe Earth is estimated to be at least 455 billion years old 4550000000 yearstable 11 shows some reference points to keep in mindWhat do geoscientists do In the past traditional geologists spent most of their time in the field looking prospecting for telltale signs of minerals o Prospectors still rough it in the bush but now they are called exploration geologists aExpanding the scope and responsibilities of the mod ern geologist into additional scientific fields means that these pro fessionals are now more correctly referred to as geoscientists
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